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U+5BA2, 客
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5BA2

[U+5BA1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5BA3]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 40 +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 十竹水口 (JHER), four-corner 30604, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 284, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7128
  • Dae Jaweon: page 561, character 16
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 927, character 13
  • Unihan data for U+5BA2

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
客-oracle.svg 客-bronze.svg 客-silk.svg 客-bigseal.svg 客-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
kʰraːɡs
ɡ·raːɡs
ɡ·raːɡs
ɡ·raːɡs
ɡ·raːɡs
ɡ·raːɡs
raːɡs
raːɡs
raːɡs
raːɡs
ɡ·raːɡs
ɡ·raːɡ
ɡ·raːɡ
ɡ·raːɡ
ɡ·raːɡ
ɡ·raːɡ
ɡ·raːɡ
ɡ·raːɡ
ɡ·raːɡ
ɡ·raːɡ, *klaːɡ
笿 ɡ·raːɡ
ɡ·raːɡ, *kraːɡ
ɡ·raːɡ
ɡ·raːɡ, *kraːɡ
ɡ·raːɡ, *kraːɡ
ɡ·raːɡ
klaːɡ
klaːɡ
klaːɡ
klaːɡ, *kraːɡ
klaːɡ
kʰlaːɡ
kʰaːɡ
ɡlaːɡ, *mɡraːɡ
ɡlaːɡ
ɡlaːɡ
ɡ·raɡ
kraːɡ
kraːɡ
kraːɡ
kraːɡ
kraːɡ
kʰraːɡ
kʰraːɡ
kʰraːɡ
ŋɡraːɡ
ŋɡraːɡ
ŋɡraːɡ
ŋɡraːɡ
ɡraːɡ
ɡraːɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰraːɡ): semantic  (roof) + phonetic  (OC *klaːɡ) – a guest. Oracle bone script used 𠯆 instead of .

Etymology[edit]

Probably belongs to the word family of (OC *klaːɡ, *kraːɡ, “to go, to come”). Starostin compares this with Proto-Altaic *kàra (opposite, enemy) > Turkish karak (robber). Schuessler (2007) cites Tibetan དགྲ (dgra, enemy) as a possible cognate.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • káh - vernacular;
  • káik - literary.
Note:
  • khiak/khek - literary;
  • kheh/kheeh - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kʰɤ⁵¹/
Harbin /t͡ɕʰiɛ²¹³/
/kʰɤ⁵³/
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰie¹³/
/kʰɤ⁵³/
Jinan /kə²¹/
/kʰei²¹³/
Qingdao /kʰə⁵⁵/
/kʰe⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /kʰɤ²⁴/
Xi'an /kʰei²¹/
Xining /kʰɨ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kʰa¹³/
/kʰə¹³/
Lanzhou /kʰə¹³/
Ürümqi /kʰɤ²¹³/
/kʰei⁴⁴/
Wuhan /kʰɤ²¹³/
Chengdu /kʰe³¹/
Guiyang /kʰɛ²¹/
Kunming /kʰə³¹/
Nanjing /kʰəʔ⁵/
Hefei /kʰɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /kʰaʔ²/
Pingyao /kʰʌʔ¹³/
/t͡ɕʰiʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /kʰaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /kʰaʔ⁵/
Suzhou /kʰɑʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /kʰɑʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /kʰa²¹³/
Hui Shexian /kʰɛʔ²¹/
Tunxi /kʰa⁵/
Xiang Changsha /kʰə²⁴/
Xiangtan /kʰæ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /kʰɑʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /hak̚¹/
Taoyuan /hɑk̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hak̚³/
Nanning /hak̚³³/
Hong Kong /hak̚³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰik̚³²/
/kʰeʔ³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰɑʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰa²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰeʔ²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /xɛ⁵⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (29)
Final () (113)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰˠæk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰᵚak̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰak̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰaɨjk̚/
Li
Rong
/kʰɐk̚/
Wang
Li
/kʰɐk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰɐk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ke
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ khæk ›
Old
Chinese
/*kʰˤrak/
English guest

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3903
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰraːɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. guest; visitor
  2. customer; consumer
  3. to treat with guest etiquette; to receive friendly
  4. minor; less major; less important
  5. Agent suffix, indicating “one that engages in ...”.
  6. one who sponges on a wealthy family; hanger-on; sponger
  7. traveller; passenger; one who lives away from home
  8. to live away from home; to live abroad
  9. (in general) people; person
  10. objective; beyond human consciousness
  11. Short for 客家 (kèjiā, “Hakka”).
  12. Classifier for units of food sold.
  13. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  (きゃく) (kyaku)
  • Korean: (, gaek)
  • Vietnamese: khách ()

Others:

  • Proto-Hmong-Mien: *Khæk (guest)
    • White Hmong: qhua (guest)
  • Lao: ແຂກ (khǣk, guest)
  • Thai: แขก (kɛ̀ɛk, guest)

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana きゃく, rōmaji kyaku)

  1. guest
  2. customer
  3. patron

Usage notes[edit]

This is used as part of a form of address for a customer, like sir or ma'am. Because a customer is in a much higher social position, this word is used with the honorific prefix (お, o-) and the honorific suffix さん (-san) or more often さま (-sama), rendering お客さん (okyakusan) or お客様 (okyakusama).


Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Noun[edit]

(gaek) (hangeul )

  1. Hanja form? of , “guest”.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(khách)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.