Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
U+5BA2, 客
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5BA2

[U+5BA1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5BA3]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
客-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 40 +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 十竹水口 (JHER), four-corner 30604, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 284, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7128
  • Dae Jaweon: page 561, character 16
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 927, character 13
  • Unihan data for U+5BA2

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
客-oracle.svg 客-bronze.svg 客-silk.svg 客-bigseal.svg 客-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰraːɡs
*ɡ·raːɡs
*ɡ·raːɡs
*ɡ·raːɡs
*ɡ·raːɡs
*ɡ·raːɡs
*raːɡs
*raːɡs
*raːɡs
*raːɡs
*ɡ·raːɡs
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ, *klaːɡ
笿 *ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ, *kraːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ, *kraːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ, *kraːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*klaːɡ
*klaːɡ
*klaːɡ
*klaːɡ, *kraːɡ
*klaːɡ
*kʰlaːɡ
*kʰaːɡ
*ɡlaːɡ, *mɡraːɡ
*ɡlaːɡ
*ɡlaːɡ
*ɡ·raɡ
*kraːɡ
*kraːɡ
*kraːɡ
*kraːɡ
*kraːɡ
*kʰraːɡ
*kʰraːɡ
*kʰraːɡ
*ŋɡraːɡ
*ŋɡraːɡ
*ŋɡraːɡ
*ŋɡraːɡ
*ɡraːɡ
*ɡraːɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰraːɡ): semantic (roof) + phonetic (OC *klaːɡ) – a guest. Oracle bone script used 𠯆 instead of .

Etymology[edit]

Probably belongs to the word family of (OC *klaːɡ, *kraːɡ, “to go, to come”). Starostin compares this with Proto-Altaic *kàra(opposite, enemy) > Turkish karak(robber). Schuessler (2007) cites Tibetan དགྲ(dgra, enemy) as a possible cognate.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • káh - vernacular;
  • káik - literary.
Note: kheh - vernacular, khek - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kʰɤ⁵¹/
Harbin /t͡ɕʰiɛ²¹³/
/kʰɤ⁵³/
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰie¹³/
/kʰɤ⁵³/
Jinan /kə²¹/
/kʰei²¹³/
Qingdao /kʰə⁵⁵/
/kʰe⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /kʰɤ²⁴/
Xi'an /kʰei²¹/
Xining /kʰɨ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kʰa¹³/
/kʰə¹³/
Lanzhou /kʰə¹³/
Ürümqi /kʰɤ²¹³/
/kʰei⁴⁴/
Wuhan /kʰɤ²¹³/
Chengdu /kʰe³¹/
Guiyang /kʰɛ²¹/
Kunming /kʰə³¹/
Nanjing /kʰəʔ⁵/
Hefei /kʰɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /kʰaʔ²/
Pingyao /kʰʌʔ¹³/
/t͡ɕʰiʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /kʰaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /kʰaʔ⁵/
Suzhou /kʰɑʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /kʰɑʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /kʰa²¹³/
Hui Shexian /kʰɛʔ²¹/
Tunxi /kʰa⁵/
Xiang Changsha /kʰə²⁴/
Xiangtan /kʰæ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /kʰɑʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /hak̚¹/
Taoyuan /hɑk̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hak̚³/
Nanning /hak̚³³/
Hong Kong /hak̚³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰik̚³²/
/kʰeʔ³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰɑʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰa²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰeʔ²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /xɛ⁵⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (29)
Final () (113)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰˠæk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰᵚak̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰak̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰaɨjk̚/
Li
Rong
/kʰɐk̚/
Wang
Li
/kʰɐk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰɐk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ke
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ khæk ›
Old
Chinese
/*kʰˤrak/
English guest

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3903
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰraːɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. guest; visitor
  2. customer; consumer
  3. to treat with guest etiquette; to receive friendly
  4. minor; less major; less important
  5. Agent suffix, indicating “one that engages in ...”.
  6. one who sponges on a wealthy family; hanger-on; sponger
  7. traveller; passenger; one who lives away from home
  8. to live away from home; to live abroad
  9. (in general) people; person
  10. objective; beyond human consciousness
  11. Short for 客家 (kèjiā, “Hakka”).
  12. Classifier for units of food sold.
  13. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Others:

  • Proto-Hmong-Mien: *Khæk(guest)
    • White Hmong: qhua(guest)
  • Lao: ແຂກ(khǣk, guest)
  • Thai: แขก(kɛ̀ɛk, guest)

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana きゃく, romaji kyaku)

  1. guest
  2. customer
  3. patron

Usage notes[edit]

This is used as part of a form of address for a customer, like sir or ma'am. Because a customer is in a much higher social position, this word is used with the honorific prefix (お, o-) and the honorific suffix さん(-san) or more often さま(-sama), rendering お客さん (okyakusan) or お客様 (okyakusama).


Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Noun[edit]

‎(gaek) ‎(hangeul )

  1. Hanja form? of , “guest”.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(khách)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.