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U+9732, 露
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9732

[U+9731]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9733]
U+F938, 露
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F938

[U+F937]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F939]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 173, +12, 21 strokes, cangjie input 一月口一口 (MBRMR), four-corner 10164, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1378, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 42463
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1887, character 38
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4078, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+9732

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ɡ·raːɡs) : semantic + phonetic (OC *ɡ·raːɡs).

Etymology 1[edit]

Possibly a derivative of (OC *ɡ·raːɡ) (Schuessler, 2007) with exopassivising suffix *-s, literally, "what has been dropped".

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter luH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/luoH/
Pan
Wuyun
/luoH/
Shao
Rongfen
/loH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lɔH/
Li
Rong
/loH/
Wang
Li
/luH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/luoH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
lou6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ luH ›
Old
Chinese
/*p.rˁak-s/
English dew; disclose

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3860
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·raːɡs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. dew
  2. (Northern Min) fog; mist
  3. (literary, or in compounds) fruity beverage; syrup; nectar; juice
  4. (literary, or in compounds) cosmetic products made by distilling flowers, fruit or leaves
  5. a surname
Synonyms[edit]
  • (dew):
  • (fog):

Etymology 2[edit]

Karlgren (1957) considers this to be the same word as etymology 1, yet Schuessler (2007) thinks this may be a separate etymon, comparing it to Jingpho [script needed] (kra31, to appear, to show).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • lòu - vernacular;
  • lù - literary.
Note:
  • lou6 - literary;
  • lau6 - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter luH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/luoH/
Pan
Wuyun
/luoH/
Shao
Rongfen
/loH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lɔH/
Li
Rong
/loH/
Wang
Li
/luH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/luoH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
lou6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ luH ›
Old
Chinese
/*p.rˁak-s/
English dew; disclose

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3860
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·raːɡs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to be in the open; bare; open; exposed
  2. (colloquial) to show; to reveal; to expose
Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
つゆ
Grade: S
kun’yomi
(tsuyu): a droplet of dew on a leaf.
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

⟨tuyu⟩/t͡suju/

From Old Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(つゆ) (tsuyu

  1. dew, dewdrop
    • 938, Minamoto no Shitagō, Wamyō Ruijushō, volume 1, page 30:
      [3]
      露 三禮義宗云:「白露八月節、寒露九月節。」音路。白虎通云:「甘露美露也。降則物無不美盛矣。」[和名:豆由
      Dew - according to Mitsumata no Yoshimune: the hakuro is a solar term in the eighth lunar month, the kanro the ninth. The syllable has the same sound as (ro). The Bai Hu Tong reads: amrita (sweet dew) is a beautiful dew. After descending, there are none that are not beautiful or abundant. (Japanese name: tsuyu)
  2. (by extension) a drop or drops of something
  3. transience
  4. (historical) the threads of the sleeve ends of 狩衣 (kariginu), 水干 (suikan), etc.
  5. tears
  6. a gratuity, tip
  7. (historical, colloquial) Synonym of 豆板銀 (mameitagin) a lump of silver used as currency in the Edo period
Derived terms[edit]

Adverb[edit]

(つゆ) (tsuyu

  1. not one bit
  2. a few, a little
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
あらわ
Grade: S
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling

⟨arapa⟩/araɸa//arawa/

From Old Japanese.

Cognate with prefix (ara-, crude, raw).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

(あらわ) (arawaあらは (arafa)?-na (adnominal (あらわ) (arawa na), adverbial (あらわ) (arawa ni))

  1. naked, bare
    ()(まん)あらわする
    fuman o arawa ni suru
    to expose/lay bare one's discontent
  2. blatant, frank, open
  3. made public
  4. obvious
Inflection[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC luH).

“Russia”

Short-form of ateji (当て字) spelling 露西亜.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

() (ro

  1. dew, waterdrop
  2. transience
  3. appear, expose
  4. open; in the open
Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

() (ro

  1. Short for ロシア (Roshia): Russia, Russian
    (べい)()(かん)(けい)
    Bei-Ro kankei
    US-Russia relations
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN
  3. ^ Minamoto, Shitagō with Kyōto Daigaku Bungakubu Kokugogaku Kokubungaku Kenkyūshitu (931–938) Shohon Shūsei Wamyō Ruijushō: Honbunhen (in Japanese), Kyōto: Rinsen, published 1968, →ISBN.

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC luH). Recorded as Middle Korean 로〯 (lwǒ) (Yale: lwǒ) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 이슬 (iseul ro), South Korea 이슬 (iseul no))

  1. Hanja form? of / (dew).
  2. Hanja form? of / (open; to reveal; to appear).
  3. Hanja form? of / (Alternative form referring to Russia (in compounds, in news media)).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
ちゆ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Cognate with Japanese (tsuyu).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ちゆ) (chiyu

  1. a dew, dewdrop

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ チユ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary (archived; reopens 2024).(permanent dead link)

Old Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Japonic *tuyu.

Noun[edit]

(tuyu) (kana つゆ)

  1. a dew, dewdrop
    • c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 20, poem 4318:
      , text here
      安伎能野爾都由於弊流波疑乎多乎良受弖安多良佐可里乎須具之弖牟登香
      aki1 no2 no1 ni tuyu ope1ru pagi2 wo taworazute atara sakawi wo sugusitemu2 to ka
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
Descendants[edit]
  • Japanese: (tsuyu)

Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate with prefix (ara-, crude, raw).

Adjective[edit]

(arapa) (kana あらは)

  1. naked, bare
    • 720, Nihon Shoki, (Age of the gods, part 2):
      顯露、此云阿羅播弐。齋庭、此云踰弐波。
      Bare, read as arapa ni (modern arawa ni); holy ground, read as yunipa (modern yuniwa)
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: lộ

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.