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See also:
U+984D, 額
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-984D

[U+984C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+984E]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 181, +9, 18 strokes, cangjie input 十口一月金 (JRMBC), four-corner 31686, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1406, character 40
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43586
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1924, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4384, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+984D

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋɡraːɡ): phonetic (OC *kʰraːɡ) + semantic (head).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ŋa-k (forehead; cockscomb).

This word is only attested during Han and later. Wang (1982) suggested that it is cognate with (OC *ŋraːn, “face”), whereas Schuessler (2007) considers it a semantic extension of (OC *ŋɡraːɡ, “to face”).

The relationship to Proto-Mon-Khmer *[t₁]ʔah (forehead), whence Khmer ថ្ងាស (thngah), is unclear.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: ngaak6-2 - “top part, board, amount”.
Note:
  • ngiăh>ngiĕh - “forehead”;
  • ngiăh - “top part, board, amount”.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • hia̍h - vernacular (“forehead, top part, board”);
    • gia̍h - vernacular (“amount”);
    • ge̍k/gia̍k - literary.
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (113)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋˠæk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋᵚak̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋak̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋaɨjk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋɐk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋɐk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋɐk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    è
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    é
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngæk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.ŋˁrak/ (no pre-Qín exx?)
    English forehead

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 3906
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋɡraːɡ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (anatomy) forehead
    2. (figurative) top part
    3. (figurative) horizontal inscribed board; tablet; plaque
    4. amount; quantity; number
    5. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. forehead
    2. amount
    3. frame

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひたい
    Grade: 5
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    ひたい
    [noun] forehead
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    がく
    Grade: 5
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠæk̚).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (がく) (gaku

    1. framed picture
    2. sum, amount
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ぬか
    Grade: 5
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    ぬか
    [noun] forehead
    [noun] kowtowing
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠæk̚). Recorded as Middle Korean ᄋᆡᆨ (Yale: oyk) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 이마 (ima aek))

    1. Hanja form? of (forehead).
    2. Hanja form? of (amount).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (ngạch, nghệch, nghách, nghạch)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.