Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
U+96E8, 雨
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-96E8

[U+96E7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+96E9]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
雨-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (U+2ED7) (When used as a combining radical)

Han character[edit]

(radical 173 +0, 8 strokes, cangjie input 一中月卜 (MLBY), four-corner 10227, composition𠕒)

  1. Kangxi radical #173, (rain).

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

Wikidata has structured data related to:

Wikidata

  • KangXi: page 1371, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 42210
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1878, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4057, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+96E8

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms
𠕒
𠕘
𠕲

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
雨-oracle.svg 雨-bronze.svg 雨-bigseal.svg 雨-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – a cloud with drops of rain falling from it.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *k/r/s-wa.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • hō͘/hǒ͘ - colloquial;
  • ú/í - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (35)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦɨoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦioX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣioX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦuə̆X/
Li
Rong
/ɣioX/
Wang
Li
/ɣĭuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ hjuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.ɢʷ(r)aʔ/
English rain

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 15952
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷaʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. rain
  2. (figuratively) friend
  3. (figuratively) teaching; instruction
Descendants[edit]
Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  () (u)
  • Korean: (, u)
  • Vietnamese: ()

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (35)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦɨoH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦioH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣioH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦuə̆H/
Li
Rong
/ɣioH/
Wang
Li
/ɣĭuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯uH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ hjuH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ʷ(r)aʔ-s/
English rain (v.t.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 15953
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷas/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to rain
  2. to fall from the sky (like the rain)

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of 下雨 (“to rain”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 下雨
Mandarin Beijing 下雨
Taiwan 下雨
Tianjin 下雨
Harbin 下雨
Shenyang 下雨
Jinan 下雨
Muping 下雨
Luoyang 下雨
Jiedian 下雨
Xi'an 下雨
Xining 下雨
Xuzhou 下雨
Yinchuan 下雨
Lanzhou 下雨
Ürümqi 下雨
Wuhan 下雨落雨
Chengdu 下雨落雨
Guiyang 下雨落雨 dated
Liuzhou 下雨落雨
Yangzhou 下雨
Nanjing 下雨
Hefei 下雨
Nantong 落雨
Cantonese Guangzhou 落雨
Hong Kong 落雨
Zhongshan 落雨
Dongguan 落雨
Hong Kong (Weitou) 落雨
Taishan 落水
Yangjiang 落水
Xinyi 落水
Nanning 落雨
Kuala Lumpur 落雨落水
Gan Nanchang 落雨
Lichuan 落雨
Pingxiang 落雨
Hakka Meixian 落雨落水
Xingning 落水
Huidong 落水
Qujiang 落水
Xiaosanjiang 落水
Changting 落雨
Pingyu 落雨
Wuping 落雨
Liancheng 落雨
Ninghua 落雨
Yudu 落雨
Ruijin 落雨
Shicheng 落雨
Shangyou 落雨
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 落雨
Liudui (S. Sixian) 落雨
Hsinchu (Hailu) 落水
Dongshi (Dabu) 落雨
Zhuolan (Raoping) 落雨
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 落雨
Hong Kong 落水
Sabah 落水
Senai 落水
Singkawang 落水
Huizhou Jixi 落雨
Jin Taiyuan 下雨
Xinzhou 下雨
Min Bei Jian'ou 落雨
Min Dong Fuzhou 盪雨
Fuqing 盪雨
Matsu 盪雨
Min Nan Xiamen 落雨
Quanzhou 落雨
Zhangzhou 落雨
Taipei 落雨
Kaohsiung 落雨
Tainan 落雨
Taichung 落雨
Wuqi 落雨
Hsinchu 落雨
Taitung 落雨
Lukang 落雨天落雨
Sanxia 落雨
Yilan 落雨
Kinmen 落雨
Magong 落雨
Penang 落雨
Singapore 落雨
Philippines (Manila) 落雨
Chaozhou 落雨
Shantou 落雨
Haifeng 落雨
Johor Bahru 落雨
Haikou 落雨
Leizhou 落雨
Puxian Min Putian 落雨
Xianyou 落雨
Pinghua Nanning 落雨
Wu Shanghai 落雨雨落 dated
Suzhou 落雨
Hangzhou 落雨
Wenzhou 落雨
Chongming 落雨
Danyang 落雨落水
Jinhua 落雨
Ningbo 落雨
Xiang Changsha 落雨
Shuangfeng 落雨
Loudi 落雨

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

  • The さめ (same) reading occurs as epenthesis (instead of the more common あめ (ame)) in terms such as 小雨 (kosame, light rain, drizzle) and 春雨 (harusame, spring rain).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
あめ
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Cognate with (same, rain). Found both alone and in compounds. Perhaps derived from /same//ame/ with loss of the initial /s/; see same.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana あめ, rōmaji ame)

  1. rain
     (ひと) (あめ)ごとに (はる) ()hito ame goto ni haru ga kuruspring nears by each rainfall
    • 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 1, page 24:
      雨 設文云、雨、音禹、阿女○山田本有和名二字、谷川氏曰、阿女天水之急呼、謂如水從天下也、水從雲中而下也

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
さめ
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Cognate with (ame, rain).

Appears as the latter part in older compounds with an -s- infix or prefix. It is unclear if this leading /s/ is indicative of an earlier form (same), or if this was an epenthesis for euphony to avoid vowel clusters, or for other reasons. This /s/ is also seen in (ao, becoming sao in old compounds) and (ine, becoming shine in old compounds).

Given that this /s/ only ever appears interstitially, and given the semantics, this /s/ may be cognate with Korean interfix -ᄉ- (-s-) used to mark possession, much like English 's.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana さめ, rōmaji same)

  1. (possibly archaic) rain
Usage notes[edit]

Now used only in compounds.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(u)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: u, McCune-Reischauer: u, Yale: wu)
    • Name (hangeul):
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Miyako[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(hiragana あみ, romaji ami)

Noun[edit]

(hiragana あみ, romaji ami)

  1. rain

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(hiragana あみ, romaji ami)

Noun[edit]

(hiragana あみ, romaji ami)

  1. rain

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

()

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Yonaguni[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(hiragana あみ, romaji ami)

Noun[edit]

(hiragana あみ, romaji ami)

  1. rain

Yoron[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(hiragana あみ, romaji ami)

Noun[edit]

(hiragana あみ, romaji ami)

  1. rain

Compounds[edit]