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See also:
U+6851, 桑
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6851

[U+6850]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6852]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 75, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 水水水木 (EEED), four-corner 17904, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 526, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14772
  • Dae Jaweon: page 914, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1209, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6851

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𰗑 second round simplified

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
桑-oracle.svg 桑-seal.svg 桑-bigseal.svg

Etymology 1[edit]

Unknown.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sng - vernacular;
  • song - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /sɑŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /saŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /sɑŋ²¹/
    Jinan /saŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /saŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /saŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /saŋ²¹/
    Xining /sɔ̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /sɑŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /sɑ̃³¹/
    Ürümqi /sɑŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /saŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /saŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /saŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /sã̠⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /saŋ³¹/
    Hefei /sɑ̃²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /sɒ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /sɑŋ¹³/
    /ɕyə¹³/
    Hohhot /sɑ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /sɑ̃⁵³/
    Suzhou /sɑ̃⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /sɑŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /suɔ³³/
    Hui Shexian /so³¹/
    Tunxi /sau¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /san³³/
    Xiangtan /sɔn³³/
    Gan Nanchang /sɔŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /soŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /soŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sɔŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /ɬɔŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /sɔŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sɔŋ⁵⁵/
    /sŋ̍⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /souŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /sɔŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /sɯŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /saŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (101)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /sɑŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /sɑŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /saŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /sɑŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /sɑŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /sɑŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    sāng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    sāng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[s]ˁaŋ/
    English mulberry tree

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10980
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sŋaːŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. mulberry tree
    2. A surname​.
    Synonyms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Borrowed from Japanese さん (-san). Compare Min Nan 卡桑 (khà-sàng), 多桑 (tò-sàng), 歐巴桑欧巴桑 (o͘-bá-sáng), and 歐吉桑欧吉桑 (o͘-jí-sáng).

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (ACG, Internet slang) -san
    Related terms[edit]
    • (jiàng, “-chan”), (tàn, “-tan”), (jūn, “-kun”), (yàng, “-sama”)

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. mulberry

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くわ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    /kupa//kuɸa//kuwa/

    From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[1]

    Ultimate derivation unclear. Definitely not related to Korean (ppong, mulberry tree) or 오디 (odi, mulberry fruit), nor to Ainu テㇱマニ (tesmani, mulberry tree) or ツレㇷ゚ニ (turepni, mulberry tree).

    Some theories suggest this might have originally been a compound. Possible derivations may include:

    • A shift from (kopa, silkworm + leaf)
    • A shift from (kopa, non-Chinese people to the west of China + leaf), possibly referencing the origin of some mulberry species in central Asia
    • A contraction of 食ふ (kupu pa, eat + leaf), where kupu is the ancient reading of modern 食う (kuu)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (くわ) (kuwa (historical kana くは)

    1. mulberry

    Usage notes[edit]

    As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as クワ.

    This term can refer to the fruit or the tree. For greater specificity, the following may be used:

    References[edit]

    1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 7, poem 1357), text here
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 뽕나무 (ppongnamu sang))

    1. mulberry tree

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (tang, dâu)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.