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See also:
U+6851, 桑
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6851

[U+6850]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6852]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 75 +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 水水水木 (EEED), four-corner 17904, composition)

  1. mulberry tree

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 526, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14772
  • Dae Jaweon: page 914, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1209, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6851

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms (corrupted form)

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
桑-oracle.svg 桑-bronze.svg 桑-bigseal.svg 桑-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sŋaːŋ
*sŋaːŋ
*sŋaːŋʔ
*sŋaːŋʔ
*sŋaːŋʔ
*sŋaːŋʔ

Pronunciation[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (101)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sɑŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/sɑŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/sɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/saŋ/
Li
Rong
/sɑŋ/
Wang
Li
/sɑŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/sɑŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
sāng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
sāng
Middle
Chinese
‹ sang ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s]ˤaŋ/
English mulberry tree

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10980
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sŋaːŋ/

Etymology 1[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Definitions[edit]

  1. mulberry tree
  2. A surname​.

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowing from Japanese さん (-san). Compare Min Nan 卡桑 (khà-sàng), 多桑 (tò-sàng), 歐巴桑欧巴桑 (o͘-bá-sáng), and 歐吉桑欧吉桑 (o͘-jí-sáng).

Definitions[edit]

  1. (ACG, Internet slang) -san

Related terms[edit]

  • (jiàng, “-chan”), (tàn, “-tan”), (jūn, “-kun”), (yàng, “-sama”)

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. mulberry

Readings[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
くわ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

/kupa//kuɸa//kuwa/

From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[1]

Ultimate derivation unclear. Definitely not related to Korean (ppong, mulberry tree) or 오디 (odi, mulberry fruit), nor to Ainu テㇱマニ (tesmani, mulberry tree) or ツレㇷ゚ニ (turepni, mulberry tree).

Some theories suggest this might have originally been a compound. Possible derivations may include:

  • A shift from (kopa, silkworm + leaf)
  • A shift from (kopa, non-Chinese people to the west of China + leaf), possibly referencing the origin of some mulberry species in central Asia
  • A contraction of 食ふ (kupu pa, eat + leaf), where kupu is the ancient reading of modern 食う (kuu)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana くわ, katakana クワ, rōmaji kuwa, historical hiragana くは, historical katakana クハ)

  1. mulberry

Usage notes[edit]

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as クワ.

This term can refer to the fruit or the tree. For greater specificity, the following may be used:

References[edit]

  1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 7, poem 1357), text here
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(sang) (hangeul , revised sang, McCune-Reischauer sang, Yale sang)

  1. mulberry tree

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tang, dâu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.