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See also:
U+6851, 桑
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6851

[U+6850]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6852]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 75, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 水水水木 (EEED), four-corner 17904, composition )

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 526, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14772
  • Dae Jaweon: page 914, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1209, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6851

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
2nd round simp. 𰗑
alternative forms
𣕐

𠭨
𠭌

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Etymology 1[edit]

Unknown (Schuessler (2007)).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sng - vernacular;
  • song - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /sɑŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /saŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /sɑŋ²¹/
Jinan /saŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /saŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /saŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /saŋ²¹/
Xining /sɔ̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /sɑŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /sɑ̃³¹/
Ürümqi /sɑŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /saŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /saŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /saŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /sã̠⁴⁴/
Nanjing /saŋ³¹/
Hefei /sɑ̃²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /sɒ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /sɑŋ¹³/
/ɕyə¹³/
Hohhot /sɑ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /sɑ̃⁵³/
Suzhou /sɑ̃⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /sɑŋ³³/
Wenzhou /suɔ³³/
Hui Shexian /so³¹/
Tunxi /sau¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /san³³/
Xiangtan /sɔn³³/
Gan Nanchang /sɔŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /soŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /soŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɔŋ⁵³/
Nanning /ɬɔŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /sɔŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /sɔŋ⁵⁵/
/sŋ̍⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /souŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /sɔŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /sɯŋ³³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /saŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (101)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter sang
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sɑŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/sɑŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/sɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/saŋ/
Li
Rong
/sɑŋ/
Wang
Li
/sɑŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/sɑŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
sāng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
song1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
sāng
Middle
Chinese
‹ sang ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s]ˁaŋ/
English mulberry tree

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10980
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sŋaːŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. mulberry tree
  2. a surname
Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Japanese さん (-san). Compare Min Nan 卡桑 (khà-sàng), 多桑 (tò-sàng), 歐巴桑欧巴桑 (o͘-bá-sáng), and 歐吉桑欧吉桑 (o͘-jí-sáng).

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. (Mandarin, ACG, Internet slang) -san

Synonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

  • (jiàng, “-chan”), (tàn, “-tan”), (jūn, “-kun”), (yàng, “-sama”)

References[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. mulberry

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
くわ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

/kupa//kuɸa//kuwa/

From Old Japanese. First attested in the Nihon Shoki of 720 CE.[1] From Proto-Japonic *kupa.

Ultimate derivation unclear. Definitely not related to Korean (ppong, mulberry tree) or 오디 (odi, mulberry fruit), nor to Ainu テㇱマニ (tesmani, mulberry tree) or ツレㇷ゚ニ (turepni, mulberry tree).

Some theories suggest this might have originally been a compound. Possible derivations may include:

  • A shift from (kopa, silkworm + leaf)
  • A shift from (kopa, non-Chinese people to the west of China + leaf), possibly referencing the origin of some mulberry species in central Asia
  • A contraction of 食ふ (kupu pa, eat + leaf), where kupu is the ancient reading of modern 食う (kuu)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(くわ) or (クワ) (kuwaくは (kufa) or クハ (kufa)?

  1. mulberry
Usage notes[edit]

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts (where katakana is customary), as クワ.

This term can refer to the fruit or the tree. For greater specificity, the following may be used:

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
そう
Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC sang).

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(そう) (さう (sau)?

  1. mulberry
  2. (US) Short for 桑港 (San Francisco (a city in California, United States)).

References[edit]

  1. ^ ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998) NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC sang).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 사ᇰ (Yale: sàng)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[3] ᄲᅩᇰ나모 (Yale: spwòng-nàmwò) 사ᇰ (Yale: sàng)

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 뽕나무 (ppongnamu sang))

  1. Hanja form? of (mulberry tree). [affix]

Compounds[edit]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: tang, dâu

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.