sao

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Ilocano[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Philippine *sahuq (words, speech).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: sa‧o

Noun[edit]

sao

  1. speech
  2. (linguistics) language
    Iniiloko a sao
    Ilocano language
  3. word

Derived terms[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

sao

  1. Rōmaji transcription of さお

Mandarin[edit]

Romanization[edit]

sao

  1. Nonstandard spelling of sāo.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of sǎo.
  3. Nonstandard spelling of sào.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Transcriptions of Mandarin into the Latin script often do not distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without indication of tone.

Tagalog[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *sauq. Compare Kapampangan sau, Tausug sāw, and Malay sauh. Doublet of sawo.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: sa‧o
  • IPA(key): /saˈʔo/, [sɐˈʔo]

Noun[edit]

saó (Baybayin spelling ᜐᜂ) (nautical)

  1. mooring cable or chains; cable for mooring ships to the pier when at anchor

Further reading[edit]

  • sao”, in Pambansang Diksiyonaryo | Diksiyonaryo.ph, Manila, 2018

Vietnamese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Vietnamese ſao.

Attested in Phật thuyết đại báo phụ mẫu ân trọng kinh (佛說大報父母恩重經) as (MC law) (modern SV: lao), so the older form of the word was *C-raːw (where *C is nonspecific consonant). Even after the sound change *C-r- > /ʂ/ had taken place sometime before 17th century, the use of the phonogram (MC law) continued, so this morpheme was still commonly spelled such in Nôm texts in the 19th-early 20th century.

Most likely a part of the r-series of demonstratives alongside rày, ri, rứa and ru.

Adverb[edit]

sao (, , 𣋀, 𫳵)

  1. why
    Synonyms: răng, tại sao, vì sao
    Sao nó bảo không đến?
    Why did he say he wouldn’t come?
    • 19th century, Nguyễn Đình Chiểu, Tale of Lục Vân Tiên
      公浪昆篤𠖈詩
      空結伴麻𠫾𠓨塲
      Công rằng: "Con dốc xuống thi,
      Sao không kết bạn mà đi vào trường?"
      Công said: "You are here to take the examination,
      So why don't you find some companion to go along with?"
  2. how
    Synonyms: răng, làm sao
    Sao tao biết được?
    How should I know?
    Sao làm được hay vậy?
    How did you do that?
    • 14th century, Mạc Đĩnh Chi, Giáo tử phú 敎子賦:
      姉㛪庄𧡊
      𡥵丐能𣋀
      Chị em chẳng thấy,
      Con cái hay sao.
      Not caring about one's siblings,
      Nor knowing how one's children are.
    • 15th century, Nguyễn Trãi, “述興 Thuật hứng 2”, in Quốc âm thi tập (國音詩集):
      固身𪰛谷可𬈋
      Có thân thì cóc khá làm sao.
      How could I manage when I'm on my own?
  3. what; what is it; what now
    Synonyms: làm sao, , cái gì
    Sao?
    Sao trăng gì !?
    Wut?
    The hell you mean, "wut"?
  4. whatever
    Sao cũng được.
    Whatever / Anything will do.
See also[edit]
Vietnamese demonstratives
Laurence Thompson (1965), Vietnamese Grammar
Unspecified Close to the
speaker or
newly introduced
Remote,
already identified
PLACE
đ- (first register)
đâu
‘wherever’
đây
‘here’
đấy
‘there’
REFERENCE
n- (second register)
nào
‘whichever’
này
‘this’
nọ
‘that’
PROPORTION
b- (first register)
bao
‘to whatever extent’
bây
‘to this extent’
bấy
‘to that extent’
MANNER
s- (first register)
v- (second register)
sao
‘however’
vầy
‘this way’
vậy
‘that way’
Nguyễn Phú Phong (1992), “Vietnamese Demonstratives Revisited”
D
(Indefinite)
D1
(Proximal)
D2
(Medial)
D3
(Distal)
+NOM(inal) đâu
place-what
đây
place-this
đấy
place-that1
±NOM(inal) đó
(place-)that1
kia
(place-)that2
–NOM(inal) nào
what
nầy
this
nấy/ấy
that1
nọ
that2
Vietnamese demonstratives (alternative version)
Proximal
(*-iː)
Distal 1
(*-iːʔ)
Distal 2
(*-əːʔ)
Distal 3/
Remote
(*-ɔːʔ)
Interrogative
(rime was a rounded
back vowel)
Place, attributive1
n-
ni

này
nấy nớ nọ nào
Place, nominal2
đ-
đây đí
đấy
đó đâu
Manner
r-
ri
rày
rứa ru
sao3
Extent 14
b-
bây bấy bao
Extent 25
v-
vầy vậy
1 Originally can only follow a nominal (being used attributively), hence nơi này (this place; here), nơi nào (where) (no longer completely true in the modern language).
2 Can be used on its own/is itself nominal, hence đây (here), đâu (where).
3 From earlier *C-raːw (where *C is nonspecific consonant).
4 Placed before the head: bây nhiêu (this much), bấy nhiêu (that much), bao nhiêu (how much).
5 Placed after the head: nhanh vầy (this fast), nhanh vậy (that fast/so fast).


Adjective[edit]

sao (, , 𣋀, 𫳵)

  1. problematic, bad
    sao lắm không?
    Is it very bad?
    Không sao đâu.
    No problem.
Derived terms[edit]
Derived terms

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Vietnamese ſao, from Proto-Vietic *k-raːw. Cognate with Muong khao. Might represent a Kra-Dai or Austronesian substratum, compare Proto-Tai *t.naːwᴬ (star), Proto-Hlai *ɾaːw (star) and Proto-Austronesian *qajaw (day).

It is a semantic loan from English star, in the senses of “celebrity; actor”.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (Northeastern Vietnam) thao

Noun[edit]

(classifier , ngôi) sao (𣇟, , 𣋀, 𬁖)

  1. star (luminous celestial body)
  2. asterisk
    toán saoan "asterisked" math problem (marked with an asterisk); a difficult math problem

Noun[edit]

(classifier ngôi) sao (𣇟, , 𣋀, 𬁖)

  1. star (celebrity)
  2. star (actor)
See also[edit]
Derived terms

Etymology 3[edit]

Sino-Vietnamese word from .

Verb[edit]

sao

  1. (rarely used in isolation) to duplicate; to copy
See also[edit]
Derived terms

Etymology 4[edit]

Sino-Vietnamese word from .

Verb[edit]

sao

  1. (chiefly of medical ingredients) to dry with heat in a pan

West Makian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

sao

  1. (transitive) to burn
  2. (transitive) to roast (over fire)

Conjugation[edit]

Conjugation of sao (action verb)
singular plural
inclusive exclusive
1st person tasao masao asao
2nd person nasao fasao
3rd person inanimate isao dasao
animate
imperative nasao, sao fasao, sao

References[edit]

  • James Collins (1982) Further Notes Towards a West Makian Vocabulary[1], Pacific linguistics
  • Clemens Voorhoeve (1982) The Makian languages and their neighbours[2], Pacific linguistics (as sao and saw)