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See also:
U+671D, 朝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-671D

[U+671C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+671E]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
12 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 74, +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 十十月 (JJB), four-corner 47420, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 506, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14374
  • Dae Jaweon: page 885, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2084, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+671D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𦩻

𨊸
調 ancient

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Qin slip script
朝-oracle.svg 朝-bronze.svg 朝-slip.svg

In the oracle bone script, it was an ideogrammic compound (會意): 2 or 4 (“grass”) or even (“tree”) + (“sun”) + (“moon”) – the sun rising above the ground while the waning moon is still in the sky – the morning.

In the bronze script, it was a compound of 𠦝 and a pictograph of a river ( or ) – this was possibly an original form for (OC *r'ew, “tide”). The river glyph may be a corruption of due to association with tides or diurnal events. Chi (2010) considers such forms to be phono-semantic (形聲), where 𠦝 is the abbreviated form of the phonetic (OC *ʔr'ew, *r'ew). In the some late Western Zhou forms, 𠦝 was corrupted into a form resembling .

According to Guo Moruo, in the stone drum inscriptions (石鼓文, likely from the Spring and Autumn period) was added (attached to ), and the river glyph was replaced with (OC *tjɯw), which was interpreted as the phonetic component; the small seal script might have inherited from this form. Shuowen interpreted the fused components of 𠦝 and as a semantic component (“dawn”). However, the accuracy of identification has been questioned; the character was a heavily weathered one in which the identification was probably spurious and likely influenced by the Shuowen. Meanwhile, the component on the right remained somewhat legible.[1]

The component remained in the bamboo and wooden slips of the Warring States period (see the table). In the clerical script since the Han dynasty, had been reverted to ; it is unclear whether this was a remnant from in the oracle bone script or a corruption of (as in < 𦩎 and many other characters). The current form is essentially inherited from the clerical script.

Etymology[edit]

“Morning” > “perform the morning ceremony” > “to go/come to court; to have an audience”. Derivative: (OC *r'ew, “morning tide”).

Perhaps related to Thai เพรา (prao, morning) (Manomaivibool, 1975).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • ziao1 - Shantou;
  • ziou1 - Chaozhou.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (9)
    Final () (92)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʈˠiᴇu/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʈᵚiɛu/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȶiæu/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʈiaw/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȶjɛu/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȶĭɛu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȶi̯ɛu/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhāo
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ziu1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhāo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ trjew ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*t<r>aw/
    English morning

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 1307
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔr'ew/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. morning
        ―  zhāo  ―  morning and evening; all the time
    2. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min Bei) breakfast
    3. moment; short period
    4. daytime; day; full day
    5. active; energetic; lively
    6. A surname.
    Synonyms[edit]
    Descendants[edit]
    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (ちょう) (chō)
    • Korean: (, jo)

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • ciao5 - Shantou;
    • ciou5 - Chaozhou.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (11)
    Final () (92)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɖˠiᴇu/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɖᵚiɛu/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȡiæu/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɖiaw/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȡjɛu/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȡĭɛu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȡʱi̯ɛu/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    cháo
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ciu4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    cháo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ drjew ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-t<r>aw/
    English (morning) audience at court

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 1309
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    𪓙
    Old
    Chinese
    /*r'ew/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (historical) to wish elders or seniors good health; to visit (a senior person)
    2. (historical) to have an audience with the king or emperor; to perform the morning ceremony; to go to court
    3. to make a pilgrimage to; to pay homage to
    4. to assemble; to call; to gather
    5. imperial court
    6. dynasty (line of rulers)
    7. emperor's reign; period ruled by a particular emperor or king
    8. government; imperial government
    9. affairs of the state
    10. (historical) courtier class
    11. (Huizhou) paternal grandfather
    12. to face
      南邊 / 南边  ―  cháozhe nánbiān  ―  facing the south
    13. towards; to; on
        ―  cháo qián kàn  ―  look ahead [lit. look to the front]
    14. Short for 朝鮮朝鲜 (Cháoxiǎn, “North Korea; Korea”).
    Synonyms[edit]
    Descendants[edit]
    Sino-Xenic ():

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 徐宝贵, “郭沫若《石鼓文研究》摹本及释文辨正”, in 考古学报 (in Chinese), issue 2007-03, 2007-07-15, pages 313–338

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʈˠiᴇu, “morning”):

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɖˠiᴇu, “dynasty; imperial court; epoch”):

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あさ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    From Old Japanese.

    Historically, a day was split into two halves:

    • Afternoon cycle: (asa) (hiru) ()
    • Evening cycle: 夕べ (yūbe) (yoi)夜中 (yonaka) (akatsuki) (ashita)

    While asa and ashita represent the same time period, asa was associated with beginning of the afternoon and ashita was associated with the end of the night. Both terms share an initial as- and are likely etymologically related.

    Beyond Japonic, probably related to Middle Korean 아ᄎᆞᆷ〮 (àchóm, morning) > Korean 아침 (achim). Alexander Vovin believes this is a Koreanic borrowing into Japanese, identifying Japanese つとめて (tsutomete) as the native Japonic root for "morning" (Vovin 2010, p. 224).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (あさ) (asa

    1. the morning
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あした
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling
    (morning)

    From Old Japanese.

    Historically, a day was split into two halves:

    • Afternoon cycle: (asa) (hiru) ()
    • Evening cycle: 夕べ (yūbe) (yoi)夜中 (yonaka) (akatsuki) (ashita)

    While asa and ashita represent the same time period, asa was associated with beginning of the afternoon and ashita was associated with the end of the night. Both terms share an initial as- and are likely etymologically related.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (あした) (ashita

    1. (archaic) the morning, morn
    2. (archaic) the morrow, next morning
    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]
    Proverbs[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ちょう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    /teu//t͡ɕeu//t͡ɕoː/

    The “morning” and “Korea” senses are from Middle Chinese (MC ʈˠiᴇu).

    The “imperial court”, “dynasty”, and “epoch” senses are from Middle Chinese (MC ɖˠiᴇu), using the 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) borrowing.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ちょう) (chōてう (teu)?

    1. the morning
    2. an imperial court
    3. an imperial reign or dynasty
    4. a country governed by a monarch
    5. a bustling place, such as downtown
    Derived terms[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    (ちょう) (-chōてう (teu)?

    1. dynasty
      ブルボン(ちょう)Burubon-chōthe Bourbon Dynasty
    Derived terms[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (ちょう) (chōてう (teu)?

    1. morning
    2. imperial court
    3. (by extension) Japan
    4. having an audience with the emperor
    5. dynasty, regime
    6. (by extension) epoch, period
    7. Short for 朝鮮 (Chōsen): Korea, specifically short for 朝鮮民主主義人民共和国 (Chōsen Minshu Shugi Jinmin Kyōwakoku): Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō
    3. 3.0 3.1 2002, 京阪系アクセント辞典 (A Dictionary of Tone on Words of the Keihan-type Dialects) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Bensei, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʈˠiᴇu).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 아침 (achim jo))

    1. Hanja form? of (morning; day).
    2. Hanja form? of (Joseon).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɖˠiᴇu).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 조정(朝廷) (jojeong jo))

    1. Hanja form? of (dynasty; imperial court).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]


    Old Japanese[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Proto-Japonic *asa.

    The as- stem refers to “the morning” or “after the dawn”, possibly cognate with or an apophonic form of 明日 (asu, tomorrow).

    Noun[edit]

    (asa) (kana あさ)

    1. the morning, morn
      Antonym: (yupu)
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:朝.

    Derived terms[edit]
    Descendants[edit]
    • Japanese: (asa)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Possibly from (asa, morning, see above) +‎ (ta, direction, side). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Noun[edit]

    (asita) (kana あした)

    1. the morrow, next morning
      Antonym: 夕へ (yupupe1)
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:朝.

    Derived terms[edit]
    Descendants[edit]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: triều, chầu, chào, tràu, trều, triêu, chiều, giàu, giầu, trào

    1. Related to chầu (to attend an audience; to attend upon (in design)). (Nguyễn Văn Khang. Từ ngoại lai trong tiếng Việt, 2007)

    Readings[edit]

    • Nôm: chào, chầu, chiều, chìu, dèo, giàu, trào, trèo, triêu, triều

    References[edit]

    • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville