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U+671D, 朝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-671D

[U+671C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+671E]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
12 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 74, +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 十十月 (JJB), four-corner 47420, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 506, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14374
  • Dae Jaweon: page 885, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2084, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+671D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms𦩻

𨊸
調 ancient

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔr'eːw
*mrews
*ʔr'ew, *r'ew
*r'ew

In the oracle bone script, it was an ideogrammic compound (會意): 2 or 4 (“grass”) + (“sun”) + (“moon”) – the sun rising above the grass while the waning moon is still in the sky – the morning.

In the bronze script, it was a compound of 𠦝 and a pictograph of a river ( or ) – this is the original form of (OC *r'ew, “tide”). The river glyph may be a corruption of due to association with tides. Chi (2010) considers such forms to be phono-semantic (形聲), where 𠦝 is the abbreviated form of the phonetic (OC *ʔr'ew, *r'ew). In the late Western Zhou forms, 𠦝 is corrupted into .

In the stone drum inscriptions (石鼓文), is added (attached to ), and the river glyph is replaced with (OC *tjɯw), which acts as a phonetic component; the small seal script likely inherits from this form. Shuowen interprets the fused component of 𠦝 and as a semantic component (“dawn”). The component is also seen in the bamboo and wooden slips of the Warring States period.

In the clerical script, is reverted to ; it is unclear whether this is a remnant from in the oracle bone script or a corruption of (as in < 𦩎). The current form is essentially inherited from the clerical script.

Etymology[edit]

“Morning” > “perform the morning ceremony” > “to go/come to court; to have an audience”. Derivative: (OC *r'ew, “morning tide”).

Perhaps related to Thai เพรา (prao, morning) (Manomaivibool, 1975).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • ziao1 - Shantou;
  • ziou1 - Chaozhou.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading #1/2
    Initial () (9)
    Final () (92)
    Tone (調)Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合)Open
    Division ()Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʈˠiᴇu/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʈᵚiɛu/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȶiæu/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʈiaw/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȶjɛu/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȶĭɛu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȶi̯ɛu/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhāo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading #2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhāo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ trjew ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*t<r>aw/
    Englishmorning

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading #1/2
    No.1307
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔr'ew/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. morning
        ―  zhāo  ―  morning and evening; all the time
    2. breakfast
    3. moment; short period
    4. daytime; day; full day
    5. active; energetic; lively
    6. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • ciao5 - Shantou;
    • ciou5 - Chaozhou.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading #2/2
    Initial () (11)
    Final () (92)
    Tone (調)Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合)Open
    Division ()Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɖˠiᴇu/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɖᵚiɛu/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȡiæu/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɖiaw/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȡjɛu/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȡĭɛu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȡʱi̯ɛu/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    cháo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading #1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    cháo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ drjew ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-t<r>aw/
    English(morning) audience at court

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading #2/2
    No.1309
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    𪓙
    Old
    Chinese
    /*r'ew/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (historical) to wish elders or seniors good health; to visit (a senior person)
    2. (historical) to have an audience with the king or emperor; to perform the morning ceremony; to go to court
    3. to make a pilgrimage to; to pay homage to
    4. to assemble; to call; to gather
    5. imperial court
    6. dynasty (line of rulers)
    7. emperor's reign; period ruled by a particular emperor or king
    8. government; imperial government
    9. affairs of the state
    10. (historical) courtier class
    11. (Huizhou) paternal grandfather
    12. towards; to; on; facing
        ―  cháo qián kàn  ―  look ahead [lit. look to the front]
    13. Short for 朝鮮朝鲜 (Cháoxiǎn, “North Korea; Korea”).
    Synonyms[edit]
    Dialectal synonyms of 祖父 (“paternal grandfather”) [map]
    VarietyLocationWords
    Classical Chinese祖父
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)祖父
    MandarinBeijing爺爺
    Taiwan爺爺
    Harbin, 爺爺
    Shenyang, 爺爺
    Hailar爺爺
    Ulan Hot爺爺
    Tongliao爺爺
    Chifeng爺爺
    Bayanhot爺爺
    Jinan爺爺
    Muping, 爺爺
    Luoyang
    Jiedian
    Xi'an, 把把 Hui
    Qingdao爺爺
    Zhengzhou爺爺, non-face-to-face
    Xining爺爺, , 爺兒
    Xuzhou爺爺
    Yinchuan爺爺
    Lanzhou爺爺
    Ürümqi爺爺, 阿爺 Hui, face-to-face
    Wuhan爹爹, 爺爺
    Huanggang爹爹
    Chengdu爺爺,
    Guiyang太爺, 老太爺, 爺爺
    Liuzhou阿公, , 爺爺
    Kunming老爹
    Yangzhou爹爹
    Nanjing爺爺, 把把 Hui
    Hefei爹爹
    Nantong爹爹
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan)爺爺
    Masanchin (Shaanxi Dungan)把把
    CantoneseGuangzhou阿爺, 爺爺 face-to-face
    Hong Kong阿爺, 爺爺
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou)阿公, 阿爺
    Foshan阿爺
    Shunde阿爺
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)阿公
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)阿公
    Taishan阿爺
    Kaiping (Chikan)阿爺
    Dongguan阿公, 阿爺
    Shaoguan阿公, 阿爺
    Yunfu阿爺
    Yangjiang阿公, 阿爺
    Xinyi阿公
    Lianjiang阿公, 公爹
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur阿爺
    Ho Chi Minh City阿爺
    GanNanchang公公, 爺爺
    Lichuan, 公兒
    Pingxiang公公
    HakkaMeixian阿公
    Xingning阿公
    Huidong阿公
    Qujiang公爹
    Xiaosanjiang阿公
    Changting公爹
    Pingyu阿公
    Wuping公爹
    Liancheng
    Ninghua公公
    Yudu公爹 non-face-to-face, 公公 face-to-face
    Ruijin公公,
    Shicheng, 公公
    Shangyou爹爹, 阿爹
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)阿公
    Liudui (S. Sixian)阿公
    Hsinchu (Hailu)阿公
    Dongshi (Dabu)阿爹, 阿公
    Hsinchu (Raoping)阿公
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)阿公
    Hong Kong阿公
    Sabah阿公
    Senai阿公
    Singkawang阿公
    HuizhouJixi, 阿朝 face-to-face
    Shexian, 朝朝, 朝奉, 老奉
    Tunxi朝朝, 老朝兒
    Xiuning阿朝, 阿爹
    Yixian老官
    Qimen老兒
    Wuyuan朝朝
    Fuliang公公, 大大
    Dexing老爹
    Jingde公公
    Xianyu (formerly Zhanda)大大
    JinTaiyuan爺爺
    Pingyao爺爺
    Xinzhou爺爺 non-face-to-face, 爺爺啊 face-to-face, 呀爺 face-to-face
    Baochang爺爺
    Jining爺爺
    Hohhot爺爺
    Baotou爺爺
    Dongsheng爺爺
    Linhe爺爺
    Haibowan爺爺
    Min BeiJian'ou公公, 爹爹, 老爹 face-to-face, 爺爺 new-style
    Dikou阿公
    Songxi家公
    Zhenghe公仔
    Zhenqian
    Jianyang爹爹
    Wuyishan爹爹
    Shibei公爹
    Min DongFuzhou依公,
    Changle依公
    Fuqing阿公
    Yongtai依公
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Zhouning阿翁
    Fuding阿公
    Matsu依公
    Min NanXiamen阿公, 俺公, 內公 non-face-to-face
    Quanzhou阿公, 內公 non-face-to-face
    Zhangzhou阿公, 咉公, 內公 non-face-to-face
    Taipei阿公, 俺公, 內公 non-face-to-face; mT
    Kaohsiung阿公
    Tainan阿公
    Taichung阿公
    Wuqi阿公
    Hsinchu阿公
    Taitung阿公
    Lukang阿公, 俺公
    Sanxia阿公
    Yilan阿公
    Kinmen俺公
    Magong阿公
    Penang阿公, , 內公
    Singapore俺公, 阿公
    Philippines (Manila)俺公, 內公 non-face-to-face
    Chaozhou阿公
    Shantou阿公
    Haifeng阿公,
    Johor Bahru阿公
    Wenchang
    Haikou non-face-to-face, non-face-to-face, face-to-face
    Leizhou尼公, 祖公, face-to-face
    Puxian MinPutian阿公
    Xianyou阿公
    PinghuaNanning, 太公
    ShehuaFu'an
    Fuding阿公
    Luoyuan阿公
    Sanming阿公
    Shunchang阿翁
    Hua'an
    Cangnan
    WuShanghai老爹, 爺爺
    Suzhou阿爹
    Wuxi爺爺
    Hangzhou爹爹, 爺爺, 阿爹
    Wenzhou阿爺, 祖公 non-face-to-face, 祖公爺 non-face-to-face
    Chongming裡公
    Danyang爺爺
    Jinhua爺爺
    Ningbo阿爺
    XiangChangsha爹爹, 爺爺, 公公
    Shuangfeng公公
    Xiangtan公公, 公毑
    Loudi阿公, 公公, 佳佳
    NotemT - mainstream Taiwanese (no particular region identified)

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. morning
    2. dynasty; regime
    3. epoch; period
    4. Korea; (more specifically) North Korea

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あさ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Historically a day was split into two halves:

    While asa and ashita represent the same time period, asa was associated with beginning of the afternoon and ashita was associated with the end of the night. Both terms share an initial as- and are likely etymologically related.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana あさ, rōmaji asa)

    1. morning

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あした
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Historically a day was split into two halves:

    While asa and ashita represent the same time period, asa was associated with beginning of the afternoon and ashita was associated with the end of the night. Both terms share an initial as- and are likely etymologically related.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana あした, rōmaji ashita)

    1. morning
    Usage notes[edit]

    The spelling 明日 is much more common in modern Japanese.

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ちょう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi
    1. dynasty
      ブルボン (ちょう)
      Burubon-chō
      the Bourbon Dynasty

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō
    3. ^ 2002, 京阪系アクセント辞典 (A Dictionary of Tone on Words of the Keihan-type Dialects) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Bensei, →ISBN
    4. ^ 2002, 京阪系アクセント辞典 (A Dictionary of Tone on Words of the Keihan-type Dialects) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Bensei, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (jo) (hangeul , revised jo, McCune–Reischauer cho, Yale co)

    1. morning, day
      조식 (朝食, josig) — breakfast
    2. dynasty, imperial court
      조선 (朝鮮, joseon) — Joseon
      왕조 (王朝, wangjo) — dynasty

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (triều, chầu, chào, tràu, trều, triêu, chiều, giàu, giầu, trào)

    1. Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese (“to meet; to meet a senior person; to attend the emperor's audience”; SV: triều).
    2. Related to chầu (to attend an audience; to attend upon (in design)). (Nguyễn Văn Khang. Từ ngoại lai trong tiếng Việt, 2007)

    Readings[edit]

    • Nôm: chào, chầu, chiều, chìu, dèo, giàu, trào, trèo, triêu, triều

    References[edit]

    • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville