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U+671D, 朝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-671D

[U+671C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+671E]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
12 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 74, +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 十十月 (JJB), four-corner 47420, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 506, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14374
  • Dae Jaweon: page 885, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2084, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+671D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𦩻

𨊸
調 ancient

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔr'eːw
*mrews
*ʔr'ew, *r'ew
*r'ew

In the oracle bone script, it was an ideogrammic compound (會意): 2 or 4 (“grass”) + (“sun”) + (“moon”) – the sun rising above the grass while the waning moon is still in the sky – the morning.

In the bronze script, it was a compound of 𠦝 and a pictograph of a river ( or ) – this is the original form of (OC *r'ew, “tide”). The river glyph may be a corruption of due to association with tides. Chi (2010) considers such forms to be phono-semantic (形聲), where 𠦝 is the abbreviated form of the phonetic (OC *ʔr'ew, *r'ew). In the late Western Zhou forms, 𠦝 is corrupted into .

In the stone drum inscriptions (石鼓文), is added (attached to ), and the river glyph is replaced with (OC *tjɯw), which acts as a phonetic component; the small seal script likely inherits from this form. Shuowen interprets the fused component of 𠦝 and as a semantic component (“dawn”). The component is also seen in the bamboo and wooden slips of the Warring States period.

In the clerical script, is reverted to ; it is unclear whether this is a remnant from in the oracle bone script or a corruption of (as in < 𦩎). The current form is essentially inherited from the clerical script.

Etymology[edit]

“Morning” > “perform the morning ceremony” > “to go/come to court; to have an audience”. Derivative: (OC *r'ew, “morning tide”).

Perhaps related to Thai เพรา (prao, morning) (Manomaivibool, 1975).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • ziao1 - Shantou;
  • ziou1 - Chaozhou.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (9)
    Final () (92)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʈˠiᴇu/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʈᵚiɛu/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȶiæu/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʈiaw/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȶjɛu/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȶĭɛu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȶi̯ɛu/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhāo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhāo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ trjew ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*t<r>aw/
    English morning

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 1307
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔr'ew/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. morning
        ―  zhāo  ―  morning and evening; all the time
    2. breakfast
    3. moment; short period
    4. daytime; day; full day
    5. active; energetic; lively
    6. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • ciao5 - Shantou;
    • ciou5 - Chaozhou.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (11)
    Final () (92)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɖˠiᴇu/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɖᵚiɛu/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȡiæu/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɖiaw/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȡjɛu/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȡĭɛu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȡʱi̯ɛu/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    cháo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    cháo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ drjew ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-t<r>aw/
    English (morning) audience at court

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 1309
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    𪓙
    Old
    Chinese
    /*r'ew/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (historical) to wish elders or seniors good health; to visit (a senior person)
    2. (historical) to have an audience with the king or emperor; to perform the morning ceremony; to go to court
    3. to make a pilgrimage to; to pay homage to
    4. to assemble; to call; to gather
    5. imperial court
    6. dynasty (line of rulers)
    7. emperor's reign; period ruled by a particular emperor or king
    8. government; imperial government
    9. affairs of the state
    10. (historical) courtier class
    11. (Huizhou) paternal grandfather
    12. towards; to; on; facing
        ―  cháo qián kàn  ―  look ahead [lit. look to the front]
    13. Short for 朝鮮朝鲜 (Cháoxiǎn, “North Korea; Korea”).
    Synonyms[edit]
    Dialectal synonyms of 祖父 (“paternal grandfather”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 祖父
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 祖父
    Mandarin Beijing 爺爺
    Taiwan 爺爺
    Harbin 爺爺
    Shenyang 爺爺
    Hailar 爺爺
    Ulan Hot 爺爺
    Tongliao 爺爺
    Chifeng 爺爺
    Bayanhot 爺爺
    Jinan 爺爺
    Muping 爺爺
    Luoyang
    Jiedian
    Xi'an 把把 Hui
    Qingdao 爺爺
    Zhengzhou 爺爺 non-face-to-face
    Xining 爺爺爺兒
    Xuzhou 爺爺
    Yinchuan 爺爺
    Lanzhou 爺爺
    Ürümqi 爺爺阿爺 Hui, face-to-face
    Wuhan 爹爹爺爺
    Huanggang 爹爹
    Chengdu 爺爺
    Guiyang 太爺老太爺爺爺
    Liuzhou 阿公爺爺
    Kunming 老爹
    Yangzhou 爹爹
    Nanjing 爺爺把把 Hui
    Hefei 爹爹
    Nantong 爹爹
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 爺爺
    Masanchin (Shaanxi Dungan) 把把
    Cantonese Guangzhou 阿爺爺爺 face-to-face
    Hong Kong 阿爺爺爺
    Shunde 阿爺
    Foshan 阿爺
    Zhongshan 阿公
    Dongguan 阿公阿爺
    Hong Kong (Weitou) 阿公阿爺
    Taishan 阿爺
    Doumen 阿公
    Kaiping 阿爺
    Shaoguan 阿公阿爺
    Yunfu 阿爺
    Yangjiang 阿公阿爺
    Xinyi 阿公
    Lianjiang 阿公公爹
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur 阿爺
    Ho Chi Minh City 阿爺
    Gan Nanchang 公公爺爺
    Lichuan 公兒
    Pingxiang 公公
    Hakka Meixian 阿公
    Xingning 阿公
    Huidong 阿公
    Qujiang 公爹
    Xiaosanjiang 阿公
    Changting 公爹
    Pingyu 阿公
    Wuping 公爹
    Liancheng
    Ninghua 公公
    Yudu 公爹 non-face-to-face公公 face-to-face
    Ruijin 公公
    Shicheng 公公
    Shangyou 爹爹阿爹
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 阿公
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 阿公
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 阿公
    Dongshi (Dabu) 阿爹阿公
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 阿公
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿公
    Hong Kong 阿公
    Sabah 阿公
    Senai 阿公
    Singkawang 阿公
    Huizhou Jixi 阿朝 face-to-face
    Shexian 朝朝朝奉老奉
    Tunxi 朝朝老朝兒
    Xiuning 阿朝阿爹
    Yixian 老官
    Qimen 老兒
    Wuyuan 朝朝
    Fuliang 公公大大
    Dexing 老爹
    Jingde 公公
    Xianyu (formerly Zhanda) 大大
    Jin Taiyuan 爺爺
    Pingyao 爺爺
    Xinzhou 爺爺 non-face-to-face爺爺啊 face-to-face呀爺 face-to-face
    Baochang 爺爺
    Jining 爺爺
    Hohhot 爺爺
    Baotou 爺爺
    Dongsheng 爺爺
    Linhe 爺爺
    Haibowan 爺爺
    Min Bei Jian'ou 公公爹爹老爹 face-to-face爺爺 new-style
    Dikou 阿公
    Songxi 家公
    Zhenghe 公仔
    Zhenqian
    Jianyang 爹爹
    Wuyishan 爹爹
    Shibei 公爹
    Min Dong Fuzhou 依公
    Changle 依公
    Fuqing 阿公
    Yongtai 依公
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Zhouning 阿翁
    Fuding 阿公
    Matsu 依公
    Min Nan Xiamen 阿公俺公內公 non-face-to-face
    Quanzhou 阿公內公 non-face-to-face
    Zhangzhou 阿公咉公內公 non-face-to-face
    Taipei 阿公俺公內公 non-face-to-face; mT
    Kaohsiung 阿公
    Tainan 阿公
    Taichung 阿公
    Wuqi 阿公
    Hsinchu 阿公
    Taitung 阿公
    Lukang 阿公俺公
    Sanxia 阿公
    Yilan 阿公
    Kinmen 俺公
    Magong 阿公
    Penang 阿公內公
    Singapore 俺公阿公
    Philippines (Manila) 俺公內公 non-face-to-face
    Chaozhou 阿公
    Shantou 阿公
    Haifeng 阿公
    Johor Bahru 阿公
    Wenchang
    Haikou non-face-to-face non-face-to-face face-to-face
    Leizhou 尼公祖公 face-to-face
    Puxian Min Putian 阿公
    Xianyou 阿公
    Pinghua Nanning 太公
    Shehua Fu'an
    Fuding 阿公
    Luoyuan 阿公
    Sanming 阿公
    Shunchang 阿翁
    Hua'an
    Cangnan
    Wu Shanghai 老爹爺爺
    Suzhou 阿爹
    Wuxi 爺爺
    Hangzhou 爹爹爺爺阿爹
    Wenzhou 阿爺祖公 non-face-to-face祖公爺 non-face-to-face
    Chongming 裡公
    Danyang 爺爺
    Jinhua 爺爺
    Ningbo 阿爺
    Xiang Changsha 爹爹爺爺公公
    Shuangfeng 公公
    Xiangtan 公公公毑
    Loudi 阿公公公佳佳
    Note mT - mainstream Taiwanese (no particular region identified)

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. morning
    2. dynasty; regime
    3. epoch; period
    4. Korea; (more specifically) North Korea

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あさ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Historically a day was split into two halves:

    While asa and ashita represent the same time period, asa was associated with beginning of the afternoon and ashita was associated with the end of the night. Both terms share an initial as- and are likely etymologically related.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana あさ, rōmaji asa)

    1. morning

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あした
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Historically a day was split into two halves:

    While asa and ashita represent the same time period, asa was associated with beginning of the afternoon and ashita was associated with the end of the night. Both terms share an initial as- and are likely etymologically related.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana あした, rōmaji ashita)

    1. morning
    Usage notes[edit]

    The spelling 明日 is much more common in modern Japanese.

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ちょう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi
    1. dynasty
      ブルボン
      the Bourbon Dynasty

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō
    3. ^ 2002, 京阪系アクセント辞典 (A Dictionary of Tone on Words of the Keihan-type Dialects) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Bensei, →ISBN
    4. ^ 2002, 京阪系アクセント辞典 (A Dictionary of Tone on Words of the Keihan-type Dialects) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Bensei, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (jo) (hangeul , revised jo, McCune–Reischauer cho, Yale co)

    1. morning, day
      조식 (朝食, josig) — breakfast
    2. dynasty, imperial court
      조선 (朝鮮, joseon) — Joseon
      왕조 (王朝, wangjo) — dynasty

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (triều, chầu, chào, tràu, trều, triêu, chiều, giàu, giầu, trào)

    1. Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese (“to meet; to meet a senior person; to attend the emperor's audience”; SV: triều).
    2. Related to chầu (to attend an audience; to attend upon (in design)). (Nguyễn Văn Khang. Từ ngoại lai trong tiếng Việt, 2007)

    Readings[edit]

    • Nôm: chào, chầu, chiều, chìu, dèo, giàu, trào, trèo, triêu, triều

    References[edit]

    • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville