A compound of Old Korean 在 (*KYE-, “to be at, to stay”), whence also 계시— (gyesi-) + 집 (jip, “house, home”). Literally "one who is at home". See also 집사람 (jipsaram), 안사람 (ansaram) with the same semantic shift. The word is not attested in the twelfth-century Jilin leishi or in any Old Korean sources, hence it is thought to have been a relatively recent coinage in the fifteenth century. The Jilin leishi transcribes the Korean word for "woman" as 漢吟 */hɑnH ŋˠiɪm/, which is not attested in any Middle Korean source.
- (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ˈkje̞(ː)d͡ʑip̚] ~ [ˈke̞(ː)d͡ʑip̚]
- Phonetic hangeul: [계(ː)집/게(ː)집]
- Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, the great majority of speakers (in both Koreas) no longer distinguish vowel length.
|Revised Romanization (translit.)?||gyejib|
계집 • (gyejip)
Korean has a number of words equivalent to English "man" and "woman".
- Sino-Korean 남자 (男子, namja, “boy; guy; man”) and 여자 (女子, yeoja, “girl; woman”) are the most common words, but can have a somewhat informal connotation.
- Sino-Korean 남성 (男性, namseong, “male; men”) and 여성 (女性, yeoseong, “female; women”) refer to men and women as groups—though pluralized 남자들 (namjadeul, “the boys; the guys; the men”) and 여자들 (yeojadeul, “the girls; the women”) is informally more common for this purpose—or to individual adult men and women in formal or polite contexts.
- Sino-Korean 여인 (女人, yeoin, “woman”) is literary. There is no male counterpart.
- The bare Sino-Korean morphemes 남 (男, nam, “male”) and 여 (女, yeo, “female”) is generally used in formal contexts, especially when referring to each gender as a collective but also for male or female individuals in more legalistic contexts. They are commonly written in hanja even when the rest of the text is in pure Hangul script.
- Native 사내 (sanae, “man”) and 계집 (gyejip, “woman”) are not normally used. 사내 (sanae) often has a connotation of machismo or manliness, while 계집 (gyejip) has become offensive and derogatory.
Note that in Early Modern Korean (1600—c. 1900) and in contemporary Standard North Korean, Sino-Korean 여 (女, yeo, “female”) is written and pronounced 녀 (nyeo), hence 녀자 (女子, nyeoja), 녀성 (女性, nyeoseong), 녀인 (女人, nyeoin).
- 이동석 (Yi Dong-seok) (2004) , “'겨집'에 대한 어휘사적 고찰 [A lexical study of kyecip]”, in Minjok Munhwa Yeon'gu, volume 40, pages 293–319