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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 77 +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 一心卜中一 (MPYLM), four-corner 13140)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 575, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16273
  • Dae Jaweon: page 965, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1439, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+6B66

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
武-oracle.svg 武-bronze.svg 武-silk.svg 武-bigseal.svg 武-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  ‎(foot; to walk; to stop) +  ‎(spear) – army going on expedition.

The graphical origin of is described in the Spring and Autumn Annals [481 BC] as “to stop violence” () – the ultimate state of warfare. This may be a misinterpretation as is frequently used to mean “to walk”, not “to stop”.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /u²¹⁴/
Harbin /u²¹³/
Tianjin /u¹³/
Jinan /u⁵⁵/
Qingdao /vu⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /u⁵³/
Xi'an /vu⁵³/
Xining /v̩⁵³/
Yinchuan /vu⁵³/
Lanzhou /vu⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /vu⁵¹/
Wuhan /u⁴²/
Chengdu /u⁵³/
Guiyang /u⁴²/
Kunming /u⁵³/
Nanjing /u²¹²/
Hefei /u²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /vu⁵³/
Pingyao /u⁵³/
Hohhot /vu⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /vu²³/
Suzhou /vu³¹/
Hangzhou /ʔu⁵³/
Wenzhou /vu³⁵/
Hui Shexian /u³⁵/
Tunxi /u³¹/
Xiang Changsha /u⁴¹/
Xiangtan /u⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /u²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /vu⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /vu³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /mou²³/
Nanning /mu²⁴/
Hong Kong /mou¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /bu⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /u³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /u²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /bu⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /vu²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mɨoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/mioX/
Shao
Rongfen
/mioX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/muə̆X/
Li
Rong
/mioX/
Wang
Li
/mĭuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mi̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ mjuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*m(r)aʔ/
English military

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13184
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*maʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. military; forces
  2. military (related to warfare, fighting)
  3. martial arts; wushu
  4. valiant; brave; courageous
  5. soldier; warrior
  6. footstep; footprint
  7. Classifier for half steps.
  8. to inherit
  9. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(mjuX, military).

The goon reading of mu, so likely the initial borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji mu)

  1. military, martial
Usage notes[edit]

Only found in compounds. Not as common as the bu reading.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(mjuX, military).

The kan'on reading of bu, so likely a re-borrowing at a later stage of Middle Chinese, or from a dialectal variation in Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji bu)

  1. courage, ferocity, valor
  2. military power, force of arms
  3. the act of carrying out military force: a battle, a war
  4. the way of carrying out military force: strategy, tactics, martial arts
  5. a military person: an officer, a soldier
  6. (obsolete) a unit of length, equivalent to half of a ‎(bu, six ‎(shaku), roughly six feet or 1.8 meters), roughly equivalent to one yard or 90 centimeters
Derived terms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Ateji used in various names.

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana たけし, romaji Takeshi)

  1. A male given name

‎(hiragana たける, romaji Takeru)

  1. A male given name

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  • 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(mu) (hangeul , revised mu, McCune-Reischauer mu, Yale mu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(, )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.