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U+BB34, 무
HANGUL SYLLABLE MU
Composition: +
Dubeolsik input:a-n

[U+BB33]
Hangul Syllables
[U+BB35]

묿


묘 ←→ 뭐

Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From earlier 무우 (muu) (unstandardized in South Korea in 1988), from Middle Korean 무ᅀᅮ (Yale: mwùzwù), connective form before suffixes 무ᇫㅇ- (Yale: mwùzG-), from pre-Middle Korean *무슥 (Yale: *mwùsùk).[1] Dialects commonly preserve the medial /-s-/.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [mu(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangeul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, the great majority of speakers (in both Koreas) no longer distinguish vowel length.
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mu
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mu
McCune–Reischauer?mu
Yale Romanization?

Noun[edit]

무 (mu, "rutabaga")

(mu)

  1. Korean radish, a variety of daikon commonly consumed in Korea (both the plant and its edible root)
    Synonym: (rare) 나복(蘿蔔) (nabok)
  2. (by extension) similar root vegetables, including other daikons, rutabagas, swedes, and yellow turnips
Alternative forms[edit]
Historical and regional synonyms of (mu, radish)
view map; edit data
GroupRegionLocationWords
Standardised formsSouth Korean Standard Language ()
North Korean Cultured Language (), 무우 (muu)
Historical formsMiddle Korean무ᅀᅮ (mwùzwù) (isolation), 무ᇫㅇ (mwùzG-) (connective)
Early Modern Seoul Korean무우 (muu)
Central KoreanGyeonggiModern colloquial Seoul (mu)
Traditional Seoul ()
Kaesong무유 (muyu)
Changpung무유 (muyu)
Yeoncheon ()
Paju (), 무이 (mu-i)
Pocheon ()
Ganghwa무이 (mu-i)
Gimpo무유 (muyu)
Goyang (), 무유 (muyu)
Yangju ()
Gapyeong ()
Siheung ()
Yangpyeong ()
Hwaseong ()
Yongin ()
Icheon무우 (muu), 무수 (musu)
Yeoju ()
Pyeongtaek ()
Anseong무수 (musu)
YeongseoChuncheon (), 무우 (muu)
Wonju (), 무수 (musu)
Kosan (), 무꾸 (mukku)
Cheorwon ()
Hwacheon ()
Yanggu (), 무꾸 (mukku)
Inje (), 무우 (muu), 무꾸 (mukku), 무수 (musu)
Hongcheon (), 무꾸 (mukku), 무수 (musu)
Hoengseong (), 무꾸 (mukku), 무수 (musu)
YeongdongGangneung (mū́), 무우 (mùú), 무우 (mũ̀ú), 무이 (mùí), 무꾸 (mùkkú)
Wonsan (), 무꾸 (mukku)
Kumya ()
Kowon ()
Munchon ()
Anbyeon (), 무꾸 (mukku)
Tongchon ()
Kosong ()
Yangyang ()
Samcheok (mū́), 무꾸 (mùkkú)
Pyeongchang (), 무우 (muu), 무수 (musu), 무꾸 (mukku)
Yeongwol (mū́), 무수 (mùsú), 무꾸 (mùkkú)
Jeongseon무우 (muu), 무꾸 (mukku)
North ChungcheongCheongju무수 (musu), ()
Jincheon무수 (musu), ()
Eumseong무수 (musu), ()
Chungju무수 (musu), ()
Jecheon무수 (musu), (), 무우 (muu), 무꾸 (mukku)
Danyang무수 (musu), 무꾸 (mukku)
Goesan무수 (musu), ()
Boeun무수 (musu), 무우 (muu)
Okcheon무수 (musu), 무우 (muu)
Yeongdong무수 (musu), ()
South ChungcheongDaejeon무수 (musu), 무우 (muu)
Seosan무수 (musu), 무우 (muu)
Dangjin무수 (musu), 무우 (muu)
Asan무수 (musu), 무우 (muu)
Cheonan무수 (musu), (), 무우 (muu)
Yesan무수 (musu), 무우 (muu)
Hongseong무수 (musu), (), 무우 (muu)
Cheongyang무수 (musu)
Gongju무수 (musu)
Yeongi무수 (musu), ()
Boryeong무수 (musu), 무이 (mu-i)
Buyeo무수 (musu), ()
Seocheon무수 (musu), ()
Nonsan무수 (musu), 무우 (muu)
Geumsan무수 (musu), ()
South HwanghaeHaeju무유 (muyu)
Ongjin미우 (miu), ()
Yonan무이 (mu-i)
Taetan미우 (miu)
Chaeryong미우 (miu), 무이 (mu-i)
Changyon미우 (miu)
Anak미우 (miu)
Unnyul미우 (miu)
North HwanghaeHwangju (), 무이 (mu-i)
Sohung미우 (miu)
Kumchon미우 (miu)
Singye무이 (mu-i)
Suan미우 (miu)
Koksan무이 (mu-i)
Southeastern Korean
(Gyeongsang)
North GyeongsangDaegu무시 (mùsí), 무우 (mùú)
Yeongju무꾸 (mùkkú)
Bonghwa무꾸 (mùkkú)
Uljin무수 (mùsú), 무꾸 (mùkkú), (mū́)
Mungyeong무시 (mùsí), 무수 (mùsú), 무꾸 (mùkkú)
Yecheon무수 (mùsú), 무꾸 (mùkkú)
Andong무시 (mùsí), 무꾸 (mùkkú), 무우 (mùú)
Yeongyang무시 (mùsí), 무꾸 (mùkkú), 무우 (mùú)
Sangju무시 (mùsí), 무꾸 (mùkkú)
Uiseong무시 (mùsí), 무꾸 (mùkkú)
Cheongsong무시 (mùsí), 무꾸 (mùkkú), 무수 (mùsú), 무우 (mùú)
Yeongdeok무시 (mùsí), 무꾸 (mùkkú), 무우 (mùú)
Gimcheon무시 (mùsí), 무꾸 (mùkkú)
Gumi무시 (mùsí), 무수 (mùsú)
Gunwi무시 (mùsí), 무수 (mùsú)
Pohang무시 (mùsí), 무꾸 (mùkkú), 무우 (mùú)
Seongju무시 (mùsí)
Chilgok무시 (mùsí), 무꾸 (mùkkú), (mū́)
Gyeongsan무시 (mùsí), 무우 (mùú)
Yeongcheon무시 (mùsí), 무우 (mùú)
Goryeong무시 (mùsí), 무우 (mùú)
Cheongdo무시 (mùsí), 무수 (mùsú), 무우 (mùú)
Gyeongju무시 (mùsí)
South GyeongsangBusan무시 (mùsí)
Ulsan무시 (mùsí)
Changwon무시 (mùsí)
Geochang무시 (mùsí), 무우 (mùú)
Hapcheon무시 (mùsí)
Changnyeong무시 (mùsí), 무수 (mùsú)
Miryang무시 (mùsí)
Hamyang무시 (mùsí)
Sancheong무시 (mùsí), 무수 (mùsú)
Uiryeong무시 (mùsí)
Hadong무시 (mùsí)
Jinju무시 (mùsí)
Haman무시 (mùsí)
Gimhae무시 (mùsí)
Yangsan무시 (mùsí)
Sacheon무시 (mùsí), 무수 (mùsú)
Goseong무시 (mùsí)
Namhae무시 (mùsí)
Tongyeong무시 (mùsí), 무수 (mùsú)
Geoje무시 (mùsí)
Ulju무시 (mùsí)
DiasporaYanbian (in general)무꾸 (mùkkú), 무수 (mùsú)
Tonghua무시 (mùsí), 무꾸 (mùkkú)
Jilin City무시 (mùsí), 무꾸 (mùkkú)
Liaoyuan무꾸 (mùkkú)
Changchun무꾸 (mùkkú)
Shenyang무시 (mùsí)
Benxi무시 (mùsí)
Anshan무시 (mùsí)
Tieling무시 (mùsí)
Harbin무꾸 (mùkkú)
Jiamusi무꾸 (mùkkú)
Yichun무꾸 (mùkkú)
Southwestern Korean
(Jeolla)
North JeollaJeonju무수 (musu)
Gunsan무수 (musu)
Iksan무수 (musu)
Wanju무수 (musu)
Jinan무수 (musu)
Muju무시 (musi), 무수 (musu), ()
Gimje무시 (musi)
Buan무시 (musi)
Jeongeup무시 (musi), 무수 (musu)
Imsil무시 (musi), 무수 (musu)
Jangsu무시 (musi)
Gochang무수 (musu)
Sunchang무시 (musi), ()
Namwon무시 (musi)
South JeollaGwangju무시 (musi)
Yeonggwang무시 (musi), 무수 (musu)
Jangseong무시 (musi)
Damyang무시 (musi)
Gokseong무시 (musi)
Gurye무시 (musi), 무수 (musu)
Hampyeong무시 (musi), 무수 (musu)
Sinan무시 (musi), 무수 (musu)
Muan무수 (musu)
Mokpo무시 (musi)
Naju무시 (musi), 무수 (musu)
Hwasun무시 (musi), 무수 (musu)
Suncheon무시 (musi)
Gwangyang무시 (musi)
Yeongam무시 (musi), 무수 (musu)
Jindo무수 (musu)
Haenam무수 (musu)
Gangjin무시 (musi), 무수 (musu)
Wando무시 (musi)
Jangheung무시 (musi)
Boseong무시 (musi)
Goheung무시 (musi)
Yeosu무시 (musi)
Northwestern Korean
(Pyongan)
South PyonganPyongyang (), 무이 (mu-i)
North PyonganPakchon ()
Nyongbyon ()
Kusong (mu)
Kanggye ()
Chasong (mu)
DiasporaTonghua (mu)
Shenyang (mu), 무우 (muu)
Dandong (mu)
Benxi (mu)
Yingkou (mu)
Panjin (mu)
Harbin (mu), 무우 (muu)
Northeastern Korean
(Hamgyong)
South HamgyongHamhung (), 무끼 (mùkkí)
Chongpyong무수 (mùsú), ()
Yonggwang무끼 (mùkkí)
Sinhung무끼 (mùkkí)
Hongwon무끼 (mùkkí)
Pukchong무끼 (mùkkí)
Riwon무끼 (mùkkí)
Changjin ()
North HamgyongChongjin무끼 (mùkkí), 미끼 (mìkkí)
Kimchaek무끼 (mùkkí)
Kilju무끼 (mùkkí)
Kyongsong무끼 (mùkkí)
Puryong무끼 (mùkkí), 미끼 (mìkkí)
Rason무끼 (mùkkí)
Musan무끼 (mùkkí)
Hyesan무끼 (mùkkí)
Kapsan무끼 (mùkkí)
Pungso무끼 (mùkkí)
Samsu무끼 (mùkkí)
Kimhyongjik ()
DiasporaYanji무끼 (mùkkí), 므끼 (mèukkí), 무꾸 (mùkkú), 노배 (nóbàe)
Tumen무끼 (mùkkí), 무꾸 (mùkkú), 노배 (nóbàe), 노베 (nóbè)
Dunhua무끼 (mùkkí), 노배 (nóbàe)
Hunchun무끼 (mùkkí), 노배 (nóbàe)
Longjing무끼 (mùkkí), 노배 (nóbàe)
Helong무끼 (mùkkí)
Wangqing노배 (nóbàe)
Baishan무끼 (mùkkí)
Jilin City무꾸 (mùkkú) (informant's wife was a Gyeongsang speaker)
Mudanjiang무끼 (mùkkí), 노배 (nóbàe)
Jixi무끼 (mùkkí), 노배 (nóbàe)
Qitaihe무끼 (mùkkí), 노배 (nóbàe), 노베 (nóbè)
Shuangyashan무끼 (mùkkí)
Jiamusi노배 (nóbàe), 로베 (róbè)
Hegang무끼 (mùkkí)
Yukjin KoreanYukjinKyonghung무끼 (mùkkí) (possibly connective form followed by suffix )
Hoeryong무끼 (mùkkí) (possibly connective form followed by suffix )
Onsong무끼 (mùkkí) (possibly connective form followed by suffix )
DiasporaHunchun무수 (mùsù) (isolation), 무끼 (mùkkí) (isolation), (mùkk-) (connective), 노배 (nóbàe) (only Chinese radishes)
JejuJeju Cityᄂᆞᆷ삐 (nawmppi)
Daejeongᄂᆞᆷ삐 (nawmppi)
Gujwaᄂᆞᆷ삐 (nawmppi)
Seogwipoᄂᆞᆷ삐 (nawmppi)
Note: Forms listed as Northeastern may include Yukjin ones, because the consulted source did not distinguish beteen the two dialects.
This table is an amalgamation of surveys of speakers mostly born before 1950 and may not reflect the language of younger speakers, which has lexically converged towards the standard Seoul dialect in both North and South Koreas.
Derived terms[edit]

(trailing)

(leading)

  • 무떡 (mutteok, radish rice cake)
  • 무말랭이 (mumallaeng-i, sliced radish dish)
  • 무싹 (mussak, radish sprouts)
  • 무청 (mucheong, radish leaves and stalks)

Etymology 2[edit]

Sino-Korean word from (nothing, not being), from the Middle Korean reading (Yale: mwù).

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mu
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mu
McCune–Reischauer?mu
Yale Romanization?mu

Noun[edit]

(mu) (hanja )

  1. nothing, nothingness, nonexistence (especially as an abstract concept in opposition to existence)
    에서 창조하다
    mueseo yureul changjohada
    to create something out of nothing
    Antonym: 유(有) (yu)
  2. Used to count draws when marking scores in competitions and tournaments.
    1 2 1
    ilseung imu ilpae
    one win, two draws, one loss
  3. (Buddhism) Given in response to a koan or a question that mistakenly assumes an affirmative or negative answer.
    불성 습니까? — !
    Gaega bulseong-i itseumnikka? mu!
    Does a dog have a Buddha-nature? — Mu!

Prefix[edit]

무— (mu-) (hanja )

  1. non-, un-, a-; a prefix marking an absence of something
    공해(公害)mugonghaenon-polluting
    소음(騷音)muso-eumnoiseless
    매너mumaeneono manners, rude

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

  • 없다 (eopda), the Korean adjective expressing nonexistence

Etymology 3[edit]

Sino-Korean word from , from the Middle Korean reading 무〯 (Yale: mwǔ).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [mu(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangeul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, the great majority of speakers (in both Koreas) no longer distinguish vowel length.
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mu
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mu
McCune–Reischauer?mu
Yale Romanization?

Noun[edit]

(mu) (hanja )

  1. (especially historical) martial ethos; the military arts; everything to do with warfare or (by extension) martial arts, especially as a concept in East Asian political theory
    • 1613, 시경언해/詩經諺解 [Korean translation of the Classic of Poetry]:
      ()ᄒᆞ고 ()ᄒᆞᆫ ()()ㅣ여 ()() 삼놋다
      munhago muhan Gilboiyeo manbang-i beobeul samnotda
      O Jifu, who mastered the arts of peace and the arts of war! The myriad realms make you as their law.
    • early 18th century, 홍길동전 경판본/洪吉童傳 京板本 [Seoul edition of the Tale of Hong Gildong]:
      젼하ᄅᆞᆯ 밧드러 만셰ᄅᆞᆯ 뫼올가 ᄒᆞ오나, 쳔비쇼ᄉᆡᆼ이라 으로 옥당 막히옵고 션천 막일지라 []
      sini jyeonhareul batdeureo mansyereul moe-olga haona, chyeonbisyosaeng-ira muneuro okdang-ui makhiopgo muro syeoncheonui magiljira []
      Though I would like to serve Your Majesty and be at your side for a myriad generations, I am the child of a lowly slave-woman. With regards to the civil arts, the halls of jade [i.e. civil service] are blocked to me; as for the military path, the Office of Transmission [post of military officers in the Korean army] is blocked to me.
    • 1920, “()()()()()()()() [War is naught but evil: my wide-ranging thoughts]”, in The Dong-a Ilbo:
      진실 () ()하고 () ()하는 () ()() ()()() 하야 ()()하게 되얏다.
      Jinsillo mureul nonhago byeong-eul seolhaneun jareul sidaeui chagojaro haya ireul jujeohage doeyatda.
      Truly, people have come to curse those who discuss military affairs and speak of armies, considering them as men who have misread the era.
    • 2019, “조선이 명을 섬길 때 일본은 세계를 만났다 [When Korea served Ming China, Japan encountered the world]”, in The Chosun Ilbo:
      국가 차원에서 강병(强兵) 없었고 개인 차원에서 무(武) 천시한 결과라는 이다.
      Gukga chawoneseoneun gangbyeong-i eopseotgo gaein chawoneseoneun mureul cheonsihan gyeolgwaraneun geosida.
      That is, [defeat] was the result of not having high-quality troops from a state perspective, and neglecting martial virtues from an individual perspective.
    Antonym: 문(文) (mun, literary arts, literariness, civility)
    Coordinate term: 문무(文武) (munmu, literate arts and martial knowledge considered together)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Sino-Korean word from (dance), from the Middle Korean reading 무〯 (Yale: mwǔ).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [mu(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangeul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, the great majority of speakers (in both Koreas) no longer distinguish vowel length.
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mu
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mu
McCune–Reischauer?mu
Yale Romanization?

Noun[edit]

(mu) (hanja )

  1. (rather uncommon) dance
    • 2016, “산청군민 무(舞)로 100세시대 건강 책임집니다”, in Gyeongnam Sinmun[1]:
      산청 산청아리랑 가락 맞춰 제작한 '군민 무(舞)' 보급 나선다.
      Sancheongguni Sancheong-arirang garage matchwo jejakhan gunmin mu bogeube naseonda.
      Sancheong County has launched a project to disseminate a dance for the county people, created according to the melodies of the Sancheong Arirang [a local folk song]."
    Synonym: (more common) (chum)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Sino-Korean word from , from the Middle Korean reading 무〯 (Yale: mwǔ).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [mu(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangeul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, the great majority of speakers (in both Koreas) no longer distinguish vowel length.
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mu
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mu
McCune–Reischauer?mu
Yale Romanization?

Noun[edit]

(mu) (hanja )

  1. (formal, uncommon) shamanism; in particular, Korean shamanism, the indigenous religion of Korea
    Synonyms: (much more common) 무속(巫俗) (musok), 무교(巫敎) (mugyo)
  2. (formal, uncommon) a priest of Korean shamanism, who are often somewhat mistakenly called shamans
    Synonyms: 무당(巫堂) (mudang), 무속인(巫俗人) (musogin); for more, see Thesaurus:무속인
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mu
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mu
McCune–Reischauer?mu
Yale Romanization?mu

Noun[edit]

(mu)

  1. gusset (especially in traditional clothing)
See also[edit]
  • 거셋 (geoset, gusset) (especially in modern clothing)
  • 마찌 (majji, gusset) (especially in modern clothing)

Etymology 7[edit]

Modern Korean reading of various Chinese characters, from Middle Korean (Yale: mwù), 무〯 (Yale: mwǔ).

Syllable[edit]

(mu)

Extended content
  1. : not being, absent
    (eumhun reading: 없을 (eopseul mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨo))
  2. : variant of
    (MC reading: (MC mɨo, muo))
  3. : firm
    (eumhun reading: 굳셀 (gutsel mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨoX))
  4. : dance
    (eumhun reading: (chumchul mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨoX))
  5. 貿: trade
    (eumhun reading: 무역할 (muyeokhal mu))
    (MC reading: 貿 (MC məuH))
  6. : effort
    (eumhun reading: 힘쓸 (himsseul mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨoH))
  7. : lush
    (eumhun reading: 무성할 (museonghal mu))
    (MC reading: (MC məuH))
  8. : shaman
    (eumhun reading: 무당 (mudang mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨo))
  9. : a Heavenly Stem
    (eumhun reading: 천간 (cheon-gan mu))
    (MC reading: (MC məuH))
  10. : fog
    (eumhun reading: 안개 (an-gae mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨoH))
  11. : parrot
    (eumhun reading: 앵무 (aengmu mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨoX))
  12. : do not
    (eumhun reading: (mal mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨo))
  13. : mu (unit of land)
    (eumhun reading: 이랑 (irang mu))
    (MC reading: (MC məuX))
  14. : caress
    (eumhun reading: 어루만질 (eorumanjil mu))
    (MC reading: (MC pʰɨoX))
  15. : coarse
    (eumhun reading: 거칠 (geochil mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨo))
  16. : deceive
    (eumhun reading: 속일 (sogil mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨo))
  17. : thumb
    (eumhun reading: 엄지 (eomji mu))
    (MC reading: (MC məuX))
  18. : interlock
    (eumhun reading: 얽을 (eolgeul mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨu, miɪu, miɪuH, mɨuk̚))
  19. : type of jade
    (eumhun reading: (okdol mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨoX))
  20. : unclear
    (eumhun reading: 불명할 (bulmyeonghal mu))
    (MC reading: )
  21. : residence
    (eumhun reading: (jip mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨoX))
  22. : strip of meat
    (eumhun reading: (po mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨo, huo, mɨoX))
  23. : gallop
    (eumhun reading: 달릴 (dallil mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨoH))
  24. : dance
    (eumhun reading: (chumchul mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨoX))
  25. : lush
    (eumhun reading: 무성할 (museonghal mu))
    (MC reading: (MC məuH))
  26. : lush
    (eumhun reading: 무성할 (museonghal mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɑu, məuH))
  27. : caress
    (eumhun reading: 어루만질 (eorumanjil mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨo, mɨoX))
  28. : caress
    (eumhun reading: 어루만질 (eorumanjil mu))
    (MC reading: (MC mɨoX))

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lee, Ki-Moon; Ramsey, S. Robert (2011) A History of the Korean Language, Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 147