-가

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Jeju[edit]

Etymology[edit]

See Korean (-ga).

Particle[edit]

(-ga)

  1. Synonym of (-i, nominative case marker) used after words ending with a vowel.

Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Unknown. It was not attested in texts from the 15th century, and its first attestation has been variously placed at 1572 CE[1] or mid-17th century[2].

Click for etymological details

It was initially of limited distribution and used in a complementary manner to (-i). The development of its usage is as follows:[3]

  1. Since the mid-17th century: used after nouns ending in -i or -y,
    e.g. pwuli-ka ("mouth"), nay-ka ("scent"), poy-ka ("boat");
  2. Since the mid-18th century: used after nouns ending in vowels/semivowels other than -i,
    e.g. ca-ka ("one who"), soyngswo-ka, nwongso-ka ("farm work");
  3. During the end of the 18th century: used briefly in the form of double particle -i/yka after nouns ending in vowels/semivowels other than -i,
    e.g. to-yka ("road"), inkwu-yka ("population"), nwongso-yka ("farm work").

Various theories exist regarding its origin:

  1. Developed from the interrogative particle (-ga);[4]
  2. Developed from the vocative case particle (-ha)/ (-a);[5]
  3. Developed from the connective ending 다가 (-daga);[6]
  4. Developed from the verb (ga-, to go);[7]
  5. Borrowed from the Japanese nominative particle (ga).[8]

Particle[edit]

(-ga)

  1. Synonym of (-i, nominative case marker) used after words ending with a vowel.
    말했잖아.Nae-ga malhaetjana.I said it.
    어디 좋을까?Eodi-ga joeulkka?Which place is best?
    의자 있다.Uija-ga itda.There is a chair.
    (file)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Korean 가〮 (Yale: -ká), from Old Korean (*-ka). In Old and Middle Korean, the word was not a suffix but an interrogative particle for polar questions, combining directly with nouns and taking the Old Korean nominalized forms of verbs, whence ㄴ가 (-n'ga) and ㄹ까 (-lkka).

In the standard Seoul dialect of the language, the suffix is no longer used in isolation (nor reserved for polar questions); see "Related terms" below.

Suffix[edit]

(-ga)

  1. (Gyeongsang) In the plain style, an interrogative suffix marking polar questions. It is only used for the copula 이다 (-ida, to be) and 아이다 (aida, to not be).
    아이?Ai-ga?Isn't it?
    이기 이름?Igi ni ireum-i-ga?Is this your name?
    느그 성제?Neugeu-deur-i seongje-ga?Are you brothers?
Usage notes[edit]
  • Its wh-word question equivalent is (-go).
  • For non-copula stems, (-na) is used.
Related terms[edit]

Particle[edit]

(-ga)

  1. (Gyeongsang) See above; sometimes appended directly to the noun, as in older forms of the language.
    이기 이름?Igi ni ireum-ga?Is this your name?

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Korean (*-kwa). Unlike Middle Korean and most other dialects, Yukjin was apparently unaffected by the lenition to (-wa) in intervocalic environments. Until the early twentieth century, the pronunciation was still (-gwa), but it has since shifted.

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

(-ga)

  1. Yukjin and Koryo-mar form of (-gwa, with, and)
  2. Yukjin and Koryo-mar form of (-wa, with, and)
  3. (for a verb of speech) to
    • 2019, 곽충구 [Kwak Chung-gu], 두만강 유역의 조선어 방언 사전 [Dictionary of Korean Dialects of the Tumen River Area], volume II, Taehaksa, →ISBN, page 3717:
      동미 말했지.
      Dongmi-ga malhaetji.
      I spoke to my friend.
    • 2019, 곽충구 [Kwak Chung-gu], 두만강 유역의 조선어 방언 사전 [Dictionary of Korean Dialects of the Tumen River Area], volume II, Taehaksa, →ISBN, page 3717:
      무스거 물어보더야?
      Ne-ga museugeo mureo-bodeoya?
      What were they asking [to] you?
Usage notes[edit]
  • As mentioned above, the particle does not change depending on whether the noun ends in a vowel or not.
  • There is no potential for confusion with the subject-marking particle (-ga) because it is not used in Yukjin.
  • Some speakers attach (-ga) to both nouns being connected, as in Old or Middle Korean.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 洪允杓, 主格語尾 「-가」에 대하여, 國語學 제3집, 1975.12, 65-91.
  2. ^ 고광모, 주격조사 ‘-가’의 발달, 사단법인 한국언어학회 2013년 겨울학술대회 발표논문집, 2013.12, 69-78.
  3. ^ 홍윤표, 近代國語硏究(Ⅰ), 태학사, 1994, pp. 412-413.
  4. ^ 이숭녕, 주격(主格) '가'의 발달(發達)과 그 해석(解釋), 국어국문학 제19권, 1958.6, 53-57.
  5. ^ 辛兌鉉, 鷄林類事·華夷譯語의 朝鮮 古語 續考, 한글, 1941.3, 9-2(통권84), pp. 1-2.
  6. ^ Ramstedt, G.J., Studies in Korean Etymology, 1949, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura.
  7. ^ 李承旭, 副動詞의 虛辭化, 진단학보, (51), 1981, 183-202.
  8. ^ 鄭光, 主格 ‘가’의 發達에 대하여: 近代國語資料의 解釋을 中心으로, 우리문화, 2.