-으로

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Korean[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (-ro)after vowels and (r)
  • ㄹ로 (-llo)after vowels, colloquially for certain pronouns

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Korean 으〮로〮 (Yale: -úlwó), from Old Korean 乙留 (*-ulwo).

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?-euro
Revised Romanization (translit.)?eulo
McCune–Reischauer?ŭro
Yale Romanization?ulo

Particle[edit]

으로 (-euro)

  1. to, toward: directional case marker, in a physical sense
    나무 방향으로 .Namu banghyang-euro ga-ja.Let's go toward the direction of the tree.
    으로 가다가 노숙자 만났다.
    Jib-euro gadaga nosukja-reul mannatda.
    I met a homeless person while going home [lit. going towards home].
  2. into, direction of a change: directional case marker in a metaphorical sense; expresses transformation or direction towards a certain time
    사람 호랑이 .Saram-i horang'i-ro byeonhaetda.The person turned into a tiger.
    나무 바꾸자.Namu-reul pul-lo bakkuja.Let's switch out the trees for grass.
    올해 한국어 배운 3 됐다.Olhaero han'gugeo-reul bae'un ji 3nyeon-i dwaetda.This year it's been 3 years since I've started learning Korean.
  3. using, out of; with: instrumental case marker, marking material, instruments, or means of doing something
    종이 만들어봤다.Jong'i-ro os-eul mandeureo-bwatda.I tried making clothes out of paper.
    깎았다.Kal-lo dor-eul kkakkatda.I carved the stone with a knife.
    오랑캐 오랑캐 제어한다.Orangkae-ro orangkae-reul jeeohanda.One controls barbarians using [other] barbarians.
    뒷문으로 둘어와.Dwinmuneuro dureowa.Come in through the back door.
  4. due to; from: instrumental case marker, marking causation
    독감으로 돌아가셨다.Dokgam-euro doragasyeotda.He passed away from influenza.
    로또 부자 됐어.Rotto-ro buja dwaesseo.I got rich from the lottery.
  5. as; as being; in the state of: instrumental case marker, marking state, manner, status, or capacity
    거지 살았다.Myeot nyeon gan geoji-ro saratda.I lived as a beggar for several years.
    친구 생각한다.Jo-eun chin'gu-ro saenggak-handa.I consider her as being a good friend.
    긍정적으로 생각 .Geungjeongjeogeuro saenggag-eul haeya dwae.You have to think positively.
  6. as of: instrumental case marker, marking an update in a list of previous events
    오늘 지각 다섯 했어.
    Oneul bu-ro neo-neun jigag-eul daseot beon haesseo.
    As of today, you've been late five times.
  7. (archaic) from; egressive case marker, in a physical or chronological sense
  8. (Gyeongsang) Marks the direct object for certain action verbs, especially verbs that have a direct impact on the object.
    Synonym: (Standard Korean) (-eul)
  9. Used in various expressions:
    1. See 으로 하여 (-euro hayeo, because of; via).
    2. See 으로 하여금 (-euro hayeogeum, expresses the agent in a causative construction).
    3. See 으로 더불어 (-euro deobureo, together with).

Usage notes[edit]

  • Usually in the first sense, 으로 (-euro) is more indirect as it expresses going towards a certain direction or a certain location. (-e) on the other hand, expresses a direct location, which is similar to (-reul).
    • In this directional sense, only 으로 (-euro) can be used with expressions ending with (jjok). Using (-e) in such case would result in a locative sense.

Derived terms[edit]