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U+C138, 세
HANGUL SYLLABLE SE
Composition: +
Dubeolsik input:t-p

[U+C137]
Hangul Syllables
[U+C139]

Jeju[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Korean (sae).

Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /se/

Noun[edit]

(se)

  1. (seamen's) east, east wind

Determiner[edit]

(se)

  1. new

Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]





서 ←→ 셔

Syllable[edit]

(se)

  1. A Hangul syllabic block made up of and .

Etymology 2[edit]

Korean numbers (edit)
30
[a], [b] ←  2 3 4  → [a], [b], [c], [d]
    Native: (set), (se), (seok), (seo)
    Sino-Korean: (sam)
    Hanja:
    Ordinal: 셋째 (setjjae)
    Number of days: 사흘 (saheul)

First attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as Middle Korean 세〯 (Yale: sěy).

Beyond Middle Korean, the reconstruction of the ancestral Koreanic root for "three" is difficult. See a list of relevant attestations and forms in Appendix:Historical Koreanic numerals#Three.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [sʰe̞(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangeul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, the great majority of speakers (in both Koreas) no longer distinguish vowel length.
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?se
Revised Romanization (translit.)?se
McCune–Reischauer?se
Yale Romanization?sēy

Numeral[edit]

(se)

  1. (native numeral) three (before a noun or classifier)
    학생
    haksaeng se myeong
    three students
    비둘기 마리
    bidulgi se mari
    three pigeons
    Synonyms: (set, three, nominal numeral without a classifier), () (sam, three, Sino-Korean numeral)
Usage notes[edit]

In modern Korean, numbers are usually written in Arabic numerals.

The Korean language has two sets of numerals: a native set of numerals inherited from Old Korean, and a Sino-Korean set which was borrowed from Middle Chinese in the first millennium C.E.

Native classifiers take native numerals.

Some Sino-Korean classifiers take native numerals, others take Sino-Korean numerals, while yet others take both.

Recently loaned classifiers generally take Sino-Korean numerals.

For many terms, a native numeral has a quantifying sense, whereas a Sino-Korean numeral has a sense of labeling.

  • 반(班) (se ban, three school classes, native numeral)
  • 반(班) (sam ban, Class Number Three, Sino-Korean numeral)

When used in isolation, native numerals refer to objects of that number and are used in counting and quantifying, whereas Sino-Korean numerals refer to the numbers in a more mathematical sense.

  • 하나 주세요 (hanaman deo juseyo, Could you give me just one more, please, native numeral)
  • 더하기 ? (Il deohagi ireun?, What's one plus one?, Sino-Korean numeral)

While older stages of Korean had native numerals up to the thousands, native numerals currently exist only up to ninety-nine, and Sino-Korean is used for all higher numbers. There is also a tendency—particularly among younger speakers—to uniformly use Sino-Korean numerals for the higher tens as well, so that native numerals such as 일흔 (ilheun, “seventy”) or 아흔 (aheun, “ninety”) are becoming less common.

Etymology 3[edit]

Korean reading of various Chinese characters.

Syllable[edit]

(se)

  1. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɕiᴇiH))
  2. :
    (MC reading: (MC seiX))
  3. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɕiuᴇiH))
  4. :
    (MC reading: (MC seiH))
  5. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɕiᴇiH))
  6. :
    (MC reading: (MC siuᴇiH))
  7. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɕiᴇiH))
  8. :
    (MC reading: )
  9. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɕiuᴇiH))
  10. :
    (MC reading: (MC d͡ʑiᴇiH))
  11. :
    (MC reading: (MC seiX))
  12. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɕiuᴇiH))
  13. 𡜧:
    (MC reading: 𡜧)
  14. :
    (MC reading: (MC d͡ʑiᴇiH))
  15. :
    (MC reading: (MC ziuɪH, ziuᴇiH))
  16. :
    (MC reading: (MC t͡sʰiuᴇiH, ɕiuᴇiH))
  17. :
    (MC reading: (MC siuᴇiH))
  18. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɕiuᴇiH))
  19. :
    (MC reading: )
  20. :
    (MC reading: )
  21. : Alternative form of
    (MC reading: (MC ziuᴇiH))
  22. :
    (MC reading: (MC ziuɪH))
  23. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɕiuᴇiH))
  24. :
    (MC reading: (MC jiᴇiH))
  25. :
    (MC reading: )
  26. :
    (MC reading: (MC ziuᴇiH))
  27. :
    (MC reading: (MC ziuᴇiH))
  28. :
    (MC reading: (MC siᴇt̚))
  29. :
    (MC reading: )

References[edit]

  • Supreme Court of the Republic of Korea (대한민국 대법원, Daehanmin-guk daebeobwon) (2018). Table of hanja for personal names (인명용 한자표 / 人名用漢字表, inmyeong-yonghanjapyo), page 24. [1]
  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]