일흔

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Jeju[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Korean 일흔 (ilheun).

Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /iɾhɨn/

Numeral[edit]

일흔 (irheun)

  1. seventy

Synonyms[edit]

  • 칠십 (chilsip) (Sino-Korean)

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

First attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as Middle Korean 닐흔〮 (Yale: nìlhún).

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?ilheun
Revised Romanization (translit.)?il-heun
McCune–Reischauer?irhŭn
Yale Romanization?il.hun

Numeral[edit]

일흔 (ilheun)

  1. (native numeral, possibly dated) seventy
    Synonym: 칠십(七十) (chilsip, seventy, Sino-Korean numeral)

Usage notes[edit]

In modern Korean, numbers are usually written in Arabic numerals.

The Korean language has two sets of numerals: a native set of numerals inherited from Old Korean, and a Sino-Korean set which was borrowed from Middle Chinese in the first millennium C.E.

Native classifiers take native numerals.

Some Sino-Korean classifiers take native numerals, others take Sino-Korean numerals, while yet others take both.

Recently loaned classifiers generally take Sino-Korean numerals.

For many terms, a native numeral has a quantifying sense, whereas a Sino-Korean numeral has a sense of labeling.

  • 반(班) (se ban, three school classes, native numeral)
  • 반(班) (sam ban, Class Number Three, Sino-Korean numeral)

When used in isolation, native numerals refer to objects of that number and are used in counting and quantifying, whereas Sino-Korean numerals refer to the numbers in a more mathematical sense.

  • 하나 주세요 (hanaman deo juseyo, Could you give me just one more, please, native numeral)
  • 더하기 ? (Il deohagi ireun?, What's one plus one?, Sino-Korean numeral)

While older stages of Korean had native numerals up to the thousands, native numerals currently exist only up to ninety-nine, and Sino-Korean is used for all higher numbers. There is also a tendency—particularly among younger speakers—to uniformly use Sino-Korean numerals for the higher tens as well, so that native numerals such as 일흔 (ilheun, “seventy”) or 아흔 (aheun, “ninety”) are becoming less common.