- “일곱” in Jeju's culture and language, Digital museum.
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| Native isol.: 일곱 (ilgop)|
Native attr.: 일곱 (ilgop)
Sino-Korean: 칠 (chil)
Ordinal: 일곱째 (ilgopjjae)
First attested in the Jīlín lèishì (鷄林類事 / 계림유사), 1103, as Late Old Korean 一急 */ʔiɪt̚ kiɪp̚/. In the Hangul script, first attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as Middle Korean 닐굽〮 (Yale: nìlkwúp).
Beyond this, the reconstruction of the ancestral Koreanic root for "seven" is difficult. See a list of relevant attestations and forms in Appendix:Historical Koreanic numerals#Seven.
|Revised Romanization (translit.)?||ilgob|
일곱 • (ilgop)
In modern Korean, numbers are usually written in Arabic numerals.
The Korean language has two sets of numerals: a native set of numerals inherited from Old Korean, and a Sino-Korean set which was borrowed from Middle Chinese in the first millennium C.E.
Native classifiers take native numerals.
- 개 한 마리 (gae han mari, “one dog”, native numeral)
- 나무 두 그루 (namu du geuru, “two trees”, native numeral)
Some Sino-Korean classifiers take native numerals, others take Sino-Korean numerals, while yet others take both.
- 종이 두 장(張) (jong'i du jang, “two sheets of paper”, native numeral)
- 이 분(分) (i bun, “two minutes”, Sino-Korean numeral)
- 서른/삼십 명(名) (seoreun/samsip myeong, “thirty people”, both sets possible)
Recently loaned classifiers generally take Sino-Korean numerals.
For many terms, a native numeral has a quantifying sense, whereas a Sino-Korean numeral has a sense of labeling.
- 세 반(班) (se ban, “three school classes”, native numeral)
- 삼 반(班) (sam ban, “Class Number Three”, Sino-Korean numeral)
When used in isolation, native numerals refer to objects of that number and are used in counting and quantifying, whereas Sino-Korean numerals refer to the numbers in a more mathematical sense.
- 하나만 더 주세요 (hana-man deo juse-yo, “Could you give me just one more, please”, native numeral)
- 일 더하기 일은? (Il deohagi ir-eun?, “What's one plus one?”, Sino-Korean numeral)
While older stages of Korean had native numerals up to the thousands, native numerals currently exist only up to ninety-nine, and Sino-Korean is used for all higher numbers. There is also a tendency—particularly among younger speakers—to uniformly use Sino-Korean numerals for the higher tens as well, so that native numerals such as 일흔 (ilheun, “seventy”) or 아흔 (aheun, “ninety”) are becoming less common.