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U+9592, 閒
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9592

[U+9591]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9593]
See also: , , and

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 169 +4, 12 strokes, cangjie input 日弓月 (ANB), four-corner 77227, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1332, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41248
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1838, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4289, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+9592

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (door) + (moon) – moonlight peeking through a door – interstice; space (original character of ).

Etymology 1[edit]

trad. /
simp.

Karlgren (1957) and Baxter (1992) connect this word with (OC *kreːn, “interstice time”).

Alternatively, Pulleyblank (1973) suggests that it is cognate with (OC *ɡraːs, “to be at leisure”).

Schuessler (2007) considers this unrelated to (OC *kreːn, *kreːns), and instead proposes that this is borrowed from Tai languages, akin to Thai คร้าน(kráan, lazy; indolent). (OC *raːnʔ, “lazy”) may be a colloquial reflex of the same word (ibid.).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • èng - vernacular;
  • hàng - literary.
Note:
  • êng/ûiⁿ/âiⁿ - vernacular;
  • hân - literary.
Note:
  • 3hhe - vernacular;
  • 3hhi - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕian³⁵/
Harbin /ɕian²⁴/
Tianjin /ɕian⁴⁵/
Jinan /ɕiã⁴²/
Qingdao /ɕiã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɕian⁴²/
Xi'an /xã²⁴/
Xining /ɕiã²⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕian⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɕiɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ɕian⁵¹/
Wuhan /xiɛn²¹³/ 休~
/xan²¹³/ 不得~
Chengdu /ɕian³¹/
Guiyang /ɕian²¹/
Kunming /ɕiɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /ɕien²⁴/
Hefei /ɕiĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕie¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕiɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ɕie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦe²³/
/ɦie²³/
/ɦi²³/
Suzhou /ɦiɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦiẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ɦa³¹/
Hui Shexian /ɕie⁴⁴/
/xɛ⁴⁴/
Tunxi /xɔ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /xan¹³/
Xiangtan /ɦan¹²/
Gan Nanchang /han²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /han¹¹/
Taoyuan /hɑn¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /han²¹/
Nanning /hɛn²¹/
Hong Kong /han²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ham³⁵/
/hiŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɛiŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /aiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /õi⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /haŋ³¹/
/ai³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (33)
Final () (73)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠɛn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚæn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦəɨn/
Li
Rong
/ɣɛn/
Wang
Li
/ɣæn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣăn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xián
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xián
Middle
Chinese
‹ hɛn ›
Old
Chinese
/*N-kˤre[n]/
English idle

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13531
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡreːn/

Definitions[edit]

  1. not busy; idle
  2. vacant; unoccupied; unused
  3. leisurely and carefree
  4. trivial; unimportant
  5. unrelated to one's proper business; extraneous; belonging to others
  6. relaxed; peaceful; tranquil; calm
  7. leisure; spare time; free time
  8. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(han, gan) (hangeul , , revised han, gan, McCune-Reischauer han, kan, Yale han, kan)

  1. leisure, idle
  2. peaceful, tranquil, calm

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(gian, nhàn, gián)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.