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U+9592, 閒
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9592

[U+9591]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9593]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 169, +4, 12 strokes, cangjie input 日弓月 (ANB), four-corner 77227, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1332, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41248
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1838, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4289, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+9592

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (door) +  (moon) – moonlight peeking through a door – interstice; space (original character of ).

Etymology 1[edit]

trad. /*
simp. *

Karlgren (1957) and Baxter (1992) connect this word with (OC *kreːn, “interstice time”).

Alternatively, Pulleyblank (1973) suggests that it is cognate with (OC *ɡraːs, “to be at leisure”).

Schuessler (2007) considers this unrelated to (OC *kreːn, *kreːns), and instead proposes that this is borrowed from Tai languages, akin to Thai คร้าน (kráan, lazy; indolent). (OC *raːnʔ, “lazy”) may be a colloquial reflex of the same word (ibid.).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • èng - vernacular;
  • hàng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • êng/ûiⁿ/âiⁿ - vernacular;
    • hân - literary.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3hhe - vernacular;
    • 3hhi - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕian³⁵/
    Harbin /ɕian²⁴/
    Tianjin /ɕian⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ɕiã⁴²/
    Qingdao /ɕiã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ɕian⁴²/
    Xi'an /xã²⁴/
    Xining /ɕiã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ɕian⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ɕiɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ɕian⁵¹/
    Wuhan /xiɛn²¹³/ 休~
    /xan²¹³/ 不得~
    Chengdu /ɕian³¹/
    Guiyang /ɕian²¹/
    Kunming /ɕiɛ̃³¹/
    Nanjing /ɕien²⁴/
    Hefei /ɕiĩ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɕie¹¹/
    Pingyao /ɕiɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /ɕie³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦe²³/
    /ɦie²³/
    /ɦi²³/
    Suzhou /ɦiɪ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦiẽ̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ɦa³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ɕie⁴⁴/
    /xɛ⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /xɔ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /xan¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɦan¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /han²⁴/
    Hakka Meixian /han¹¹/
    Taoyuan /hɑn¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /han²¹/
    Nanning /hɛn²¹/
    Hong Kong /han²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ham³⁵/
    /hiŋ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɛiŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /aiŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /õi⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /haŋ³¹/
    /ai³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (73)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦˠɛn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦᵚæn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣæn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦəɨn/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣɛn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣæn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣăn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xián
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xián
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hɛn ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*N-kˤre[n]/
    English idle

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13531
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡreːn/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. not busy; idle
    2. vacant; unoccupied; unused
    3. leisurely and carefree
    4. trivial; unimportant
    5. unrelated to one's proper business; extraneous; belonging to others
    6. relaxed; peaceful; tranquil; calm
    7. leisure; spare time; free time
    8. (gambling) player (instead of banker)
    9. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“among; between; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (han, gan) (hangeul , , revised han, gan, McCune–Reischauer han, kan, Yale han, kan)

    1. leisure, idle
    2. peaceful, tranquil, calm

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (gian, nhàn, gián)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.