京城

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Chinese[edit]

capital; Beijing (abbrev.) city walls; city; town
simp. and trad.
(京城)

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (28) (25)
Final () (111) (121)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Baxter kjaeng dzyeng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠiæŋ/ /d͡ʑiᴇŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚiaŋ/ /d͡ʑiɛŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiaŋ/ /d͡ʑiæŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kiajŋ/ /d͡ʑiajŋ/
Li
Rong
/kiɐŋ/ /ʑiɛŋ/
Wang
Li
/kĭɐŋ/ /ʑĭɛŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯ɐŋ/ /ʑi̯ɛŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jīng chéng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ging1 sing4

Noun[edit]

京城

  1. (literary) capital city (of a country)

Usage notes[edit]

When translating the English term capital city, use 首都 (shǒudū) when referring to the capital of a country, 首府 (shǒufǔ) when referring to the capital of a state or autonomous region, and 省會省会 (shěnghuì) when referring to the capital of a province. Alternative terms for the capital of a country include 國都国都 (guódū), 京城 (jīngchéng), 京都 (jīngdū), 京邑 (jīngyì) and 都城 (dūchéng) all of which are more commonly used in literary language. The term 京城 (jīngchéng) is most commonly used in historical dramas set in Imperial China.

Synonyms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (京城):

Others:

See also[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

京城

  1. (historical) (Japanese colonial era) Seoul, Gyeongseong or Keijō

Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
けい
Grade: 2
じょう
Grade: 4
kan’on goon

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Japanese. First cited to a text from 706.[1] In turn, from Middle Chinese 京城 (MC kjaeng dzyeng, literally “capital + city, town”).

Possibly encountered in older texts with the reading きょうじょう (kyōjō),[1] using the older goon pronunciation for both characters.

Use to refer to Seoul was based in part on the older name 漢城 (Hanseong),[1] and in part on the Japanese sense of "imperial capital", in referring to the city as the center of administration under the Japanese Empire.[2] The city was also informally called 京城 (Gyeongseong) in Korean during the Joseon dynasty (1392–1897).[3][4] See also Names_of_Seoul on Wikipedia.Wikipedia

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(けい)(じょう) (keijōけいじやう (keizyau)?

  1. [from 706] the emperor's residence, the imperial palace
  2. [from 706] the capital, especially within an empire

Proper noun[edit]

(けい)(じょう) (Keijōけいじやう (keizyau)?

  1. [1910–1945] (historical) (Japanese colonial era) Seoul, also known as Gyeongseong (the Korean reading of these same Chinese characters) and Keijō
    京城(けいじょう)帝国大学(ていこくだいがく)
    Keijō Teikoku Daigaku
    Keijō Imperial University

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
きょう
Grade: 2
じょう
Grade: 4
goon

The older goon pronunciation. Not used in modern Japanese, but possibly still encountered in older texts.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(きょう)(じょう) (kyōjōきやうじやう (kyauzyau)?

  1. [706–???] (obsolete) the emperor's residence, the imperial palace
  2. [706–???] (obsolete) the capital, especially within an empire

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 京城”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. ^ 京城”, in 世界大百科事典 第2版 (Sekai Dai-hyakka Jiten Dainihan, Heibonsha World Encyclopedia Second Edition)[2] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Heibonsha, 1998
  3. ^ ソウル”, in 日本大百科全書:ニッポニカ (Nippon Dai Hyakka Zensho: Nipponica, Encyclopedia Nipponica)[3] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 1984
  4. ^ Katsuhiro Kuroda (2004-07-02), “漢城、京城、セソウル? (Kanjō, Keijō, Sesouru?, Hanseong, Gyeongseong, Seseoul (New Seoul)?)”, in (please provide the title of the work)[4], Sankei Shimbun, retrieved 2020-12-19
  5. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “when it was first attested?”)

Proper noun[edit]

京城 (Gyeongseong) (hangeul 경성)

  1. Hanja form? of 경성 ((Japanese colonial era) Seoul, Gyeongseong or Keijō).

Vietnamese[edit]

chữ Hán Nôm in this term

Noun[edit]

京城

  1. chữ Hán form of kinh thành (capital city; imperial city).