- -st, -th, -nd; Forms ordinal numbers from cardinal numbers.
The ordinal numbers 2 to 19, except for 8, are formed with this suffix. The ordinals of 1, 8 and numbers greater than 19 are formed with -ste, except where hundred, thousand, etc., combine with a number between 2 to 19, for example honderd-en-tweede (“hundred and second”), honderd-en-vyfde (“hundred and fifth”), but honderd-en-agtste (“hundred and eighth”).
The suffix can also be written after a number written in digits (2de, 9de).
- Forms ordinal numbers from cardinal numbers.
The ordinal numbers of all numbers from 1 to 19 are formed with this suffix, except eerste and achtste. Ordinals of higher numbers are formed with -ste.
The suffix can also be written after a number written in digits (2de, 9de). The e is sometimes written in superscript, like in French (2de, 9de), but this is discouraged by the Dutch Language Union.
From Middle High German -ede, from Old High German -ida, from Proto-Germanic *-iþō. Compare the equally rare doublet -te (from Low German). Cognate with Dutch -te, English -th.
- (rare, not productive) forms abstract nouns from adjectives
- (noun-forming suffix) Added to a verb to form a noun indicating the place of the action.
- (noun-forming suffix) Harmonic variants:
|Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, front unrounded harmony)|
possessive - singular
possessive - plural
|Possessive forms of -de|
|possessor||single possession||multiple possessions|
|1st person sing.||-dém||-déim|
|2nd person sing.||-déd||-déid|
|3rd person sing.||-déje||-déi|
|1st person plural||-dénk||-déink|
|2nd person plural||-détek||-déitek|
|3rd person plural||-déjük||-déik|
From Middle Low German -ede, from Old Saxon -itha, from Proto-Germanic *-iþō. Cognate with Dutch -te, English -th.
- appended to an adjective, it makes a feminine noun referring to the size of the quality referred to by the adjective, cognate to -th.
- appended to the stem of a verb, yields a feminine noun which refers to the object of such a verb.
The use of the suffix is widespread in Northern Germany, however, some Low German varieties show a partial or complete suppression of the suffix. Most words listed above can also be found without the suffix, though this varies depending on the person speaking and the word. For example, Süükde is more often found as Süük with no suffix, than the original form with suffix. Hööchde can be found as Hööchd and Leevde as Leevd, with loss of the final -e. Though this process exists, the forms in -de remain largely prominent, with the notable exception of the following words: Süükde → Süük, Stillde → Still, Mengde → Meng, Stärkde → both Stärkde and Stärkd. Some words show only a form in -t, which is basically derived from the -de suffix. Examples of such words are Grött (“size”) and Hitt (“heat”).
- Intensifier that attaches to adverbs, used especially in contexts of surprise.
- Used in certain contexts to soften speech or make it more polite.
This morpheme is properly a clitic rather than a suffix.
This morpheme is properly a clitic rather than a suffix. It causes lengthening of the preceding vowel of the word it attaches to.
- Cáceres, Natalia (2011), “⸗de, ⸗:de”, in Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana, Lyon, page 162, 222
- Alternative form of -the (ordinal suffix)
(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)
- Used to form adjectives from nouns, denoting quality, kind, origin or material.
- Thurneysen, Rudolf (1940, reprinted 2003), D. A. Binchy and Osborn Bergin, transl., A Grammar of Old Irish, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, →ISBN, § 347
- Creates the past tense of weak verbs in the first conjugation.
Colloquially the suffix can be completely dropped and it is understood out of context that it is the past and not nominative sense that is used. In written form to clarify however, it might be good to mark this out with an apostrophe ('). Example of this:
- I swam 25 meters!
From Ottoman Turkish ـدا (-de, “locative suffix”), from Proto-Turkic *-te (“locative suffix”), front vowel variant of *-ta. Cognate with Karakhanid ـدا (-dē, “locative suffix”), Old Turkic 𐱅𐰀 (t²a /-te/, “locative suffix”).
- Used to form locative of nouns.
- Indicates time, at
- beşte ― at five o'clock
- kapanış saatinde ― at closing time
- Yoğun bakımda kendine geldiğinde ilk sözü "Ne zaman aşı yaptırabilirim" oldu.
- First thing he said when he regained consciousness in the intensive care was "when can I get vaccinated".
- This version is used when the noun's final vowel is a front vowel (Ee, İi, Öö, or Üü).
- In cases where a noun's final vowel is a back vowel (Aa, Iı, Oo, or Uu) and doesn't end with a clear l sound, it takes the form “-da”.
- It takes the form of “-te” when the noun’s final consonant is devoiced.
- An apostrophe is mandatory when forming the locative of a proper noun.
- -'s, of (but with the order switched); attached to nouns to mark the genitive case.
- nga-n-de hua
- our speech (the local name for the Wutunhua language)
- gu da gejhai-de niren-ha gga-la-di mi-li.
- He doesn't like his girlfriend anymore.
- ngu reben-de ren-ha qong-je-lio.
- I met a person from Japan.
- that, who; attached to nouns, adjectives, verbs, or phrases to mark them as attributive.
- jjekzhen je-ge-li zui xho-de ti
- the best place in this world; the place which is best in this world
- -ing; attached to verbals to form a noun phrase or nominal expression.
- gu qhi-di-de-ge ngu sawo jedo-gu-lio.
- I know that he went away.
- (literally, “[As for] his going, I know it.”)
- -er; attached to verbs to form agent nouns.
- lu wanlan-de ― construction worker (literally, “road-maker”)
- xai-de ― writing tool (literally, “writer”)
- en lhazzo-de bbakzzo-de en da rek mezzhawo jhi-ge yek-li.
- [There are] thangka painters and mask painters; there are different kinds of professionals.
- Attached for emphasis.
- a a da mazang-de.
- Oh, oh, that is very bad!
- so much that (attached to the main verb)
- gu ni ddo-di-de gu-dera qe-di mi-li.
- S/he thinks about you so much that it is impossible for him/her to eat any of those.
- Attached to the main verb to indicate that the subsequent verb or adjective is used as an adverb of the main verb.
- gu xai-de xaige xho-li.
- S/he writes very well.
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