-de

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German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old High German -ida.

Suffix[edit]

-de

  1. used to form abstract nouns from adjectives, no longer productive
    Gemeinde ‎(community) from gemein ‎(common)

Derived terms[edit]



Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-de

  1. (noun suffix) Added to a verb to form a noun indicating the place of the action.
    zene ‎(music) → zenede ‎(school of music)

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative -de -dék
accusative -dét -déket
dative -dének -déknek
instrumental -dével -dékkel
causal-final -déért -dékért
translative -dévé -dékké
terminative -déig -dékig
essive-formal -deként -dékként
essive-modal -déül -dékül
inessive -dében -dékben
superessive -dén -déken
adessive -dénél -déknél
illative -débe -dékbe
sublative -dére -dékre
allative -déhez -dékhez
elative -déből -dékből
delative -déről -dékről
ablative -détől -déktől
Possessive forms of -de
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. -dém -déim
2nd person sing. -déd -déid
3rd person sing. -déje -déi
1st person plural -dénk -déink
2nd person plural -détek -déitek
3rd person plural -déjük -déik

Usage notes[edit]

  • (noun suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -da is added to back vowel words
    -de is added to front vowel words
    -oda same as -da with a linking vowel
    -öde same as -de with a linking vowel

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


Low German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Low German -ede, from Old Saxon -itha, from Proto-Germanic *-iþō. Cognate with Dutch -te, English -th.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-de

  1. appended to an adjective, it makes a feminine noun referring to the size of the quality referred to by the adjective, cognate to -th.
    hooch + ‎-de → ‎Hööchde
    deep + ‎-de → ‎Deepde
    eng + ‎-de → ‎Engde
    lang ‎(long) + ‎-de → ‎Längde ‎(length)
  2. appended to the stem of a verb, yields a feminine noun which refers to the object of such a verb.
    schamen + ‎-de → ‎Schaamde
    bögen + ‎-de → ‎Böögde
Derived terms[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

The use of the suffix is widespread in Northern Germany, however, some Low German varieties show a partial or complete suppression of the suffix. Most words listed above can also be found without the suffix, though this varies depending on the person speaking and the word. For example, Süükde is more often found as Süük with no suffix, than the original form with suffix. Hööchde can be found as Hööchd and Leevde as Leevd, with loss of the final -e. Though this process exists, the forms in -de remain largely prominent, with the notable exception of the following words: SüükdeSüük, StilldeStill, MengdeMeng, Stärkde → both Stärkde and Stärkd. Some words show only a form in -t, which is basically derived from the -de suffix. Examples of such words are Grött ‎(size) and Hitt ‎(heat).

Related terms[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-de

  1. Used to form adjectives from nouns, denoting quality, kind, origin or material.

Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

  • Rudolf Thurneysen, A Grammar of Old Irish (Dublin, 1946), §347

Swedish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-de

  1. Suffix to form preterite tense, active voice, indicative mood (~past tense) of weakly inflected verbs. If the stem ends in a unvoiced consonant, the suffix instead is -te
    att blåsa ‎(to blow) + ‎-de → ‎blåste ‎(blew)
    att simma ‎(to swim) + ‎-de → ‎simmade ‎(swam)
  2. Suffix to form the past participle of weakly inflected verbs, to be used when the corresponding participle belongs with a noun in definite or plural form.

See also[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Suffix[edit]

-de

  1. Used to form locative of nouns.
    köy ‎(village) + ‎-de → ‎köyde ‎(in/at village)

Usage notes[edit]

  • It’s used when the noun’s last vowel is a front vowel.
  • It could be “-da”, when the noun’s last vowel is a back vowel.
    okulokulda
  • It could be “-te”, when the noun’s last consonant is “f”, “s”, “t”, “k”, “ç”, “ş”, “h” or “p”.
    ofisofiste
  • It must be used with an apostrophe while forming a proper noun.
    TürkiyeTürkiye’de