-de

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /də/
  • (file)

Suffix[edit]

-de

  1. Forms ordinal numbers from cardinal numbers.
    twee + ‎-de → ‎tweede
    negen + ‎-de → ‎negende
    Synonyms: -e, -ste

Usage notes[edit]

The ordinal numbers of all numbers from 1 to 19 are formed with this suffix, except eerste and achtste. Ordinals of higher numbers are formed with -ste.

The suffix can also be written after a number written in digits (2de, 9de). The e is sometimes written in superscript, like in French (2de, 9de), but this is discouraged by the Dutch Language Union.[1]

References[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German -ede, from Old High German -ida, from Proto-Germanic *-iþō. Compare the equally rare doublet -te (from Low German). Cognate with Dutch -te, English -th.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-de

  1. (rare, not productive) forms abstract nouns from adjectives
    gemein (common) + ‎-de → ‎Gemeinde (community)

Derived terms[edit]



Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-de

  1. (noun-forming suffix) Added to a verb to form a noun indicating the place of the action.
    zene (music)zenede (school of music)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (noun-forming suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -da is added to back vowel words
    -de is added to front vowel words
    -oda same as -da with a linking vowel
    -öde same as -de with a linking vowel

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative -de -dék
accusative -dét -déket
dative -dének -déknek
instrumental -dével -dékkel
causal-final -déért -dékért
translative -dévé -dékké
terminative -déig -dékig
essive-formal -deként -dékként
essive-modal -déül -dékül
inessive -dében -dékben
superessive -dén -déken
adessive -dénél -déknél
illative -débe -dékbe
sublative -dére -dékre
allative -déhez -dékhez
elative -déből -dékből
delative -déről -dékről
ablative -détől -déktől
Possessive forms of -de
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. -dém -déim
2nd person sing. -déd -déid
3rd person sing. -déje -déi
1st person plural -dénk -déink
2nd person plural -détek -déitek
3rd person plural -déjük -déik

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


Low German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Low German -ede, from Old Saxon -itha, from Proto-Germanic *-iþō. Cognate with Dutch -te, English -th.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-de

  1. appended to an adjective, it makes a feminine noun referring to the size of the quality referred to by the adjective, cognate to -th.
    hooch + ‎-de → ‎Hööchde
    deep + ‎-de → ‎Deepde
    eng + ‎-de → ‎Engde
    lang (long) + ‎-de → ‎Längde (length)
  2. appended to the stem of a verb, yields a feminine noun which refers to the object of such a verb.
    schamen + ‎-de → ‎Schaamde
    bögen + ‎-de → ‎Böögde
Derived terms[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

The use of the suffix is widespread in Northern Germany, however, some Low German varieties show a partial or complete suppression of the suffix. Most words listed above can also be found without the suffix, though this varies depending on the person speaking and the word. For example, Süükde is more often found as Süük with no suffix, than the original form with suffix. Hööchde can be found as Hööchd and Leevde as Leevd, with loss of the final -e. Though this process exists, the forms in -de remain largely prominent, with the notable exception of the following words: SüükdeSüük, StilldeStill, MengdeMeng, Stärkde → both Stärkde and Stärkd. Some words show only a form in -t, which is basically derived from the -de suffix. Examples of such words are Grött (size) and Hitt (heat).

Related terms[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Suffix[edit]

-de

  1. Used to form adjectives from nouns, denoting quality, kind, origin or material.

Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

  • Rudolf Thurneysen (1940) A Grammar of Old Irish, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, § 347

Swedish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-de

  1. Creates the past tense of weak verbs in the first conjugation.
    att simma (to swim) + ‎-de → ‎simmade (swam)
    att träffa (to hit) + ‎-de → ‎träffade (hit (past))

Usage notes[edit]

Colloquially the suffix can be completely dropped and it is understood out of context that it is the past and not nominative sense that is used. In written form to clarify however, it might be good to mark this out with an apostrophe ('). Example of this:

Jag simma' 25 meter!
I swam 25 meters!

See also[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ottoman Turkish دا(-de, locative suffix), from Proto-Turkic *-te (locative suffix), front vowel variant of *-ta. Cognate with Karakhanid دا(-dē, locative suffix), Old Turkic 𐱅𐰀(-te, locative suffix).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-de

  1. Used to form locative of nouns.
    köy (village) + ‎-de → ‎köyde (in/at village)

Usage notes[edit]

  • It’s used when the noun’s last vowel is a front vowel.
  • It could be “-da”, when the noun’s last vowel is a back vowel.
    okulokulda
  • It could be “-te”, when the noun’s final consonant is unvoiced.
    ofisofiste
  • It must be used with an apostrophe while forming a proper noun.
    TürkiyeTürkiye’de

Related terms[edit]