余り

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Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
あま
Grade: 5
kun’yomi

Etymology[edit]

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 余る (amaru, to be left over, to be in excess).[1][2] Appears in the Kojiki of 712 CE.[1]

Also encountered with geminate reading あんまり (anmari) as an emphatic form for the adjective and adverb uses. This form appears in the 1400s.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun, adjective:

Emphatic adjective:

Adverb:

Emphatic adverb:

Adjective[edit]

(あま) or (あんま) (amari or anmari-na (adnominal (あま) (amari na), adverbial (あま) (amari ni))

  1. excessive, extreme
  2. terrible, awful

Usage notes[edit]

This is used both as a -na adjective with the (na) attributive particle, and as an attributive noun followed by (no).

Inflection[edit]

Adverb[edit]

(あま) or (あんま) (amari or anmari

  1. (often with negative verbs) often, much, excessively
    西村(にしむら)さんは(あさ)(はん)あまり()べません。
    Nishimura-san wa asagohan o amari tabemasen.
    Nishimura does not eat breakfast very often.
    • 2009, けいおん!
      あんまりうまくないですね!」
      Anmari umakunai desu ne!”
      "You guys are not very good, are you?"
    Antonym: 時々 (tokidoki) (sometimes, at times, occasionally)

See also[edit]

Noun[edit]

(あま) (amari

  1. remainder
    Synonym: 余分 (yobun)

See also[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(あま) (-amari

  1. used after a numeral to express “a little more than”
    二十(にじゅう)(あま)建物(たてもの)
    nijū amari no tatemono
    twenty-odd buildings, twenty-some buildings
  2. (archaic) Used to connect numerals: and
    はづきとおかあまりいつか(a native reading of 八月十五日, which is today read as はちがつじゅうごにち (hachigatsu jūgonichi) for “August 15th”)
    hazuki tōka amari itsuka
    the 15th day of the 8th month [lit. eighth-month ten-days and five-days]

Usage notes[edit]

  • The word is used to connect native Japanese numerals (ひとつ, ふたつ etc.) into numbers, e.g. 'ten' and 'five' into 'fifteen' rather than 'ten, five'. It is not used when counting in Chinese numerals (いち, etc.).

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN