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U+963F, 阿
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-963F

[U+963E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9640]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 170, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 弓中一弓口 (NLMNR), four-corner 71220, composition)

Descendants[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1348, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41599
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1850, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4119, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+963F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Warring States
Bronze inscriptions
阿-bronze-warring.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qaːl): semantic + phonetic (OC *kʰaːlʔ): Originally meaning a big mound.

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ʔa(ŋ/k)- (noun prefix) (STEDT).

“atto-”
Borrowed from English atto-.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • a - vernacular;
  • o - literary.
  • Wu
  • Definitions[edit]

    1. Prefix used in front of the surname or last character of someone’s given name to express familiarity or friendliness (traditionally used in rural or southern Chinese dialects).
      alt. forms: dated
        ―  ā  ―  dad
        ―  Ā Biǎn  ―  Ah Bian (Chen Shui-bian)
      Q正傳 / Q正传  ―  Āqiū Zhèngzhuàn”  ―  The True Story of Ah Q
    2. (Hokkien, honorific) Prefix to rank seniority for kinship terms.
      [Hokkien]  ―  a-hiaⁿ [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  eldest brother
    3. Alternative form of (ā, á, ǎ, à, a, “particle”).
    4. Short for 阿富汗 (Āfùhàn, “Afghanistan”).
    5. Short for 阿爾巴尼亞阿尔巴尼亚 (Ā'ěrbāníyà, “Albania”).
    6. Short for 阿拉伯 (Ālābó, “Arabic”).
    7. atto- (SI unit prefix)

    Compounds[edit]

    See also[edit]

    SI prefix
    Last Next
    /

    Descendants[edit]

    • English: Ah

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
    Note:
    • Quanzhou:
      • o - vernacular;
      • o͘ - literary.
  • (Teochew)

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔa/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ē
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    o1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    ē ē
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔa › ‹ ʔa ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qˁa[j]/ /*ʔˁa/ (< *qˁaj)
    English slope, river bank 阿會亘 ēhuìxuān: Skt. ābhāsvara “shining” (E. Hàn)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7468
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qaːl/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. big mound; mountain
    2. hillside
    3. fine silks
    4. (literary, of a mountain or stream) bend; corner
    5. waterside
    6. nearby; near
    7. to flatter; to pander to
      諛奉承 / 谀奉承  ―  ēyúfèngchéng  ―  sweet-talking
    8. to be unfairly partial to
    9. Alternative form of (ē, “to excrete”).
    10. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Jinmeiyō
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔɑ).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (a

    1. The first letter of Sanskrit, (a).
    Derived terms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    () (a

    1. to flatter; to pander to
    2. ridge (of roof); eaves
    3. A prefix expressing familiarity.
    4. Used as a phonetic element, especially in words from Sanskrit.
    5. Short for 阿弗利加 (Afurika, Africa).
    6. Short for 阿波国 (Awa no kuni, Awa Province).
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くま
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    くま
    [noun] , , : corner, nook, recess
    [noun] , , : shade, shadow, dark area
    [noun] , , : dark circles under one's eyes. often clarified as 目の下のくま.
    Alternative spellings
    , ,
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 언덕 (eondeok a))
    (eumhun 호칭 (hoching ok))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: a, á
    : Nôm readings: a, à

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]