Appendix:SI units
The International System of Units (abbreviated SI from the French Système international d'unités^{[1]}) is the modern form of the metric system and is generally a system of units of measurement devised around seven base units and the convenience of the number ten. It is the world's most widely used system of measurement, both in everyday commerce and in science.^{[2]}^{[3]}^{[4]}
The International System of Units consists of a set of units together with a set of prefixes. The units are divided into two classes—base units and derived units. There are seven base units, each representing, by convention, different kinds of physical quantities. The prefixes may generally be combined with the base units and derived units to describe the applicable number of those units. For example, three quadrillion units of force would be expressed as three petanewtons, combining the prefix peta, for quadrillion, with the derived unit, newton.
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SI units[edit]
SI is an abbreviation of Système International (d'Unités) [International System (of Units)] and is a standard metric system of units adopted for official scientific use. For more information, see Wikipedia's article on SI.
Note: this page is simply a collection of links to the names of SI units and their prefixes and multiples. For further information, see the Wikipedia articles SI base units and SI derived units.
Base units (with symbols in parentheses; see full descriptions below)[edit]

Derived units (with symbols in parentheses; see full descriptions below)[edit]
Alternative names for SI units and their multiples and submultiples[edit]

Former names for SI units[edit]
SI prefixes[edit]
Prefix  Symbol  1000^{m}  10^{n}  Decimal  Short scale  Long scale  Since^{[n 1]} 

yotta  Y  1000^{8}  10^{24}  1000000000000000000000000  Septillion  Quadrillion  1991 
zetta  Z  1000^{7}  10^{21}  1000000000000000000000  Sextillion  Trilliard  1991 
exa  E  1000^{6}  10^{18}  1000000000000000000  Quintillion  Trillion  1975 
peta  P  1000^{5}  10^{15}  1000000000000000  Quadrillion  Billiard  1975 
tera  T  1000^{4}  10^{12}  1000000000000  Trillion  Billion  1960 
giga  G  1000^{3}  10^{9}  1000000000  Billion  Milliard  1960 
mega  M  1000^{2}  10^{6}  1000000  Million  1960  
kilo  k  1000^{1}  10^{3}  1000  Thousand  1795  
hecto  h  1000^{2/3}  10^{2}  100  Hundred  1795  
deca  da  1000^{1/3}  10^{1}  10  Ten  1795  
1000^{0}  10^{0}  1  One  –  
deci  d  1000^{−1/3}  10^{−1}  0.1  Tenth  1795  
centi  c  1000^{−2/3}  10^{−2}  0.01  Hundredth  1795  
milli  m  1000^{−1}  10^{−3}  0.001  Thousandth  1795  
micro  μ  1000^{−2}  10^{−6}  0.000001  Millionth  1960  
nano  n  1000^{−3}  10^{−9}  0.000000001  Billionth  Milliardth  1960 
pico  p  1000^{−4}  10^{−12}  0.000000000001  Trillionth  Billionth  1960 
femto  f  1000^{−5}  10^{−15}  0.000000000000001  Quadrillionth  Billiardth  1964 
atto  a  1000^{−6}  10^{−18}  0.000000000000000001  Quintillionth  Trillionth  1964 
zepto  z  1000^{−7}  10^{−21}  0.000000000000000000001  Sextillionth  Trilliardth  1991 
yocto  y  1000^{−8}  10^{−24}  0.000000000000000000000001  Septillionth  Quadrillionth  1991 
Notes:
Binary prefixes[edit]
The following prefixes are not part of SI. They were adopted by the IEC to express binary multiples.
prefix  sym  multiplier 

exbi  Ei  2^{60} 
pebi  Pi  2^{50} 
tebi  Ti  2^{40} 
gibi  Gi  2^{30} 
mebi  Mi  2^{20} 
kibi  Ki  2^{10} 
Former prefixes[edit]
These prefixes have been used informally at times, but were never part of SI.
prefix  multiplier  equivalent 

hectokilo  10^{5}  
myria  10^{4}  
millimilli  10^{–6}  micro 
millimicro  10^{–9}  nano 
micromicro  10^{–12}  pico 
Commonly used multiples of units[edit]
 The table below shows which prefixes are most commonly used with each unit. In theory, any combination of a prefix and a unit is possible. In practice, only those multiples that are of practical use are used. Multiples towards the left and right of the table tend to gain currency as advances in technology and miniaturisation make them meaningful.
 Links are to combinations that are in relatively common scientific use. Blank entries indicate combinations that are rare or not used.
 Notes:
 Units are ordered alphabetically by their symbol. Prefixes are ordered from largest to smallest.
 It is the gram (g) that takes prefixes, not the kilogram.
 Some combinations have special names; for example, 10^{6} grams is called a tonne, not a "megagram".
 The multiples in the grey columns are not in official scientific usage.
 The table lists multiples of SI units only. Other units that use the SI prefixes, such as kilobyte and millibar, are not given here.
 The table is currently incomplete. More links will be added later.
(Sources: ; Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed.)
Y  Z  E  P  T  G  M  k  h  da  Unit  d  c  m  μ  n  p  f  a  z  y 

MA  kA  A  mA  μA  nA  
PBq  TBq  GBq  Bq  
C  
°C  
cd  
F  mF  μF  nF  pF  
t, Mg  kg  hg  dag  g  dg  cg  mg  μg  
Gy  
H  mH  μH  nH  
PHz  THz  GHz  MHz  kHz  Hz  
kJ  J  
K  
kat  
lm  
klx  lx  
km  hm  dam  m  dm  cm  mm  μm  nm  pm  fm  
mol  mmol  μmol  nmol  pmol  fmol  
MN  kN  N  
GΩ  MΩ  kΩ  Ω  mΩ  
GPa  MPa  kPa  hPa  Pa  
rad  mrad  
S  
s  ms  μs  ns  ps  fs  as  
sr  
Sv  mSv  µSv  
T  mT  µT  nT  
MV  kV  V  mV  μV  
GW  MW  kW  W  mW  μW  
kWb  Wb  mWb  μWb 
Base units[edit]
Name  Symbol  Measure  Definition  Historical origin / justification 

second  s  time  "The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium 133 atom." 13th CGPM (1967/68, Resolution 1; CR, 103) "This definition refers to a caesium atom at rest at a temperature of 0 K." (Added by CIPM in 1997) 
The day is divided in 24 hours, each hour divided in 60 minutes, each minute divided in 60 seconds. A second is ^{1}⁄_{(24 × 60 × 60)} of the day 
metre  m  length  "The metre is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second." 17th CGPM (1983, Resolution 1, CR, 97) 
^{1}⁄_{10,000,000} of the distance from the Earth's equator to the North Pole measured on the circumference through Paris. 
kilogram  kg  mass  "The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram." 3rd CGPM (1901, CR, 70) 
The mass of one litre of water. A litre is one thousandth of a cubic metre. 
ampere  A  electric current  "The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular crosssection, and placed 1 metre apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 × 10^{−7} newton per metre of length." 9th CGPM (1948) 
The original "International Ampere" was defined electrochemically as the current required to deposit 1.118 milligrams of silver per second from a solution of silver nitrate. Compared to the SI ampere, the difference is 0.015%. 
kelvin  K  thermodynamic temperature  "The kelvin, unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water." 13th CGPM (1967/68, Resolution 4; CR, 104) "This definition refers to water having the isotopic composition defined exactly by the following amount of substance ratios: 0.000 155 76 mole of ^{2}H per mole of ^{1}H, 0.000 379 9 mole of ^{17}O per mole of ^{16}O, and 0.002 005 2 mole of ^{18}O per mole of ^{16}O." (Added by CIPM in 2005) 
The Celsius scale: the Kelvin scale uses the degree Celsius for its unit increment, but is a thermodynamic scale (0 K is absolute zero). 
mole  mol  amount of substance  "1. The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon 12; its symbol is “mol.”
2. When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles." 
Atomic weight or molecular weight divided by the molar mass constant, 1 g/mol. 
candela  cd  luminous intensity  "The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 × 10^{12} hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian." 16th CGPM (1979, Resolution 3; CR, 100) 
The candlepower, which is based on the light emitted from a burning candle of standard properties. 
Derived units with special names[edit]
Base units can be combined to derive units of measurement for other quantities. In addition to the two dimensionless derived units radian (rad) and steradian (sr), 20 other derived units have special names.
Name  Symbol  Quantity  Expression in terms of other units  Expression in terms of SI base units 

hertz  Hz  frequency  1/s  s^{−1} 
radian  rad  angle  m/m  dimensionless 
steradian  sr  solid angle  m^{2}/m^{2}  dimensionless 
newton  N  force, weight  kg·m/s^{2}  kg·m·s^{−2} 
pascal  Pa  pressure, stress  N/m^{2}  kg·m^{−1}·s^{−2} 
joule  J  energy, work, heat  N·m = C·V = W·s  kg·m^{2}·s^{−2} 
watt  W  power, radiant flux  J/s = V·A  kg·m^{2}·s^{−3} 
coulomb  C  electric charge or quantity of electricity  s·A  s·A 
volt  V  voltage, electrical potential difference, electromotive force  W/A = J/C  kg·m^{2}·s^{−3}·A^{−1} 
farad  F  electric capacitance  C/V  kg^{−1}·m^{−2}·s^{4}·A^{2} 
ohm  Ω  electric resistance, electrical impedance, reactance  V/A  kg·m^{2}·s^{−3}·A^{−2} 
siemens  S  electrical conductance  1/Ω = A/V  kg^{−1}·m^{−2}·s^{3}·A^{2} 
weber  Wb  magnetic flux  J/A  kg·m^{2}·s^{−2}·A^{−1} 
tesla  T  magnetic field strength, magnetic flux density  V·s/m^{2} = Wb/m^{2} = N/(A·m)  kg·s^{−2}·A^{−1} 
henry  H  inductance  V·s/A = Wb/A  kg·m^{2}·s^{−2}·A^{−2} 
degree Celsius  °C  temperature relative to 273.15 K  K  K 
lumen  lm  luminous flux  cd·sr  cd 
lux  lx  illuminance  lm/m^{2}  m^{−2}·cd 
becquerel  Bq  radioactivity (decays per unit time)  1/s  s^{−1} 
gray  Gy  absorbed dose (of ionizing radiation)  J/kg  m^{2}·s^{−2} 
sievert  Sv  equivalent dose (of ionizing radiation)  J/kg  m^{2}·s^{−2} 
katal  kat  catalytic activity  mol/s  s^{−1}·mol 
Other common units, such as the litre, are not SI units, but are accepted for use with SI.
Multiples of base units by prefix[edit]
Notes:
 *
 The kilogram is the SI base unit for mass, not the gram, which is defined as 1/1000th of a kilogram.
 +
 The candela is still considered an SI base unit, although it is no longer fundamental, being defined in terms of other SI units.
Variations in other languages[edit]
French[edit]
In French, accents appear in the following prefixes and base units:
German[edit]
In German, common nouns (including the names of SI units) are capitalized. Some spelling variations also appear:
 hecto = hekto
 deca = deka
 deci = dezi
 centi = zenti
 micro = mikro
 pico = piko
 yocto = yokto
Spanish[edit]
 hertz = hercio
 joule = julio
 watt = vatio
 volt = voltio
 ampere = amperio
 ohm = ohmio
 farad = faradio
 henry = henrio
 radian = radián
 steradian = estereorradián
References[edit]
 ^ Resolution of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures establishing the International System of Units
 ^ Official BIPM definitions
 ^ Essentials of the SI: Introduction
 ^ An extensive presentation of the SI units is maintained on line by NIST, including a diagram of the interrelations between the derived units based upon the SI units. Definitions of the basic units can be found on this site, as well as the CODATA report listing values for special constants such as the electric constant, the magnetic constant and the speed of light, all of which have defined values as a result of the definition of the metre and ampere.
In the International System of Units (SI) (BIPM, 2006), the definition of the metre fixes the speed of light in vacuum c_{0}, the definition of the ampere fixes the magnetic constant (also called the permeability of vacuum) μ_{0}, and the definition of the mole fixes the molar mass of the carbon 12 atom M(^{12}C) to have the exact values given in the table [Table 1, p.7]. Since the electric constant (also called the permittivity of vacuum) is related to μ_{0} by ε_{0} = 1/μ_{0}c_{0}^{2}, it too is known exactly.