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See also:
U+4E9E, 亞
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E9E

[U+4E9D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E9F]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character[edit]

(radical 7, +6, 8 strokes, cangjie input 一中中一 (MLLM), four-corner 10107)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 87, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 274
  • Dae Jaweon: page 183, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 23, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+4E9E

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
𠀓
𠄮

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
亞-oracle.svg 亞-bronze.svg 亞-seal.svg 亞-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形): an overhead view of a construction, likely a -shaped tomb.

Etymology 1[edit]

Probably from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ʔrak (inferior; dependent), whence Tibetan རག (rag, to depend on; subject; subservient; dependent) (Bodman, 1980; Coblin, 1986).

Karlgren (1957) connects it to (OC *qaːɡ, “evil”), but Schuessler (2007) considers this to be unlikely due to the semantics.

The shangsheng pronunciation in Mandarin is a result of influence of the pronunciation of (), the script of which contains as a component (Fu, 1958).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • a, ah - vernacular;
  • à - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (98)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔˠaH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔᵚaH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔaH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔaɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔaH/
    Wang
    Li
    /aH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔaH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔæH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔˁrak-s/
    English secondary

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 14212
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qraːɡs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. a house (four walls & windows, seen from above)
    2. second; inferior
      /   ―  jūn  ―  second place
      /   ―    ―  not inferior to
    3. Alternative form of ().
    4. A surname​.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (~洲) Short for 亞細亞亚细亚 (Yàxìyà, “Asia”).

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (dated) Alternative form of (ā, “kinship prefix”)..

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. rank
    2. follow
    3. sub- prefix

    Readings[edit]

    References[edit]

    • New Nelson: 82
    • Halpern: 3563
    • Halpern Learners: not listed
    • Heisig: not listed
    • Tuttle Kanji Dictionary: 0a7.14
    1. Source: EDICT and KANJIDIC files licensed by the Electronic Dictionaries Research Group.

    Usage notes[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔˠaH).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (phonetic element in transliterations):
    • (second; sub-; ranking next; etc.):
      • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [a̠ː]
      • Phonetic hangeul: [ː]
        • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 버금 (beogeum a))

    1. Hanja form? of (second; sub-).
    2. Hanja form? of (ranking next; coming after).
    3. Hanja form? of (Asia (abbreviation)).
    4. Hanja form? of (used as a prefix to names).

    Compounds[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    Hanja in this term

    (A) (hangeul )

    1. (in headlines) Short for 亞細亞아세아 (Asea, Asia).

    Usage notes[edit]

    A common convention in news headlines, this is almost always written solely in the Hanja form, even in contemporary Korean text otherwise devoid of any Hanja.

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: á, a

    1. Asia
    2. Asiatic

    References[edit]