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U+5DE6, 左
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5DE6

[U+5DE5]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5DE7]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 48 +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 大一 (KM), four-corner 40011, composition𠂇)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 325, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 8720
  • Dae Jaweon: page 626, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 411, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+5DE6

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu bamboo and silk script Qin bamboo and wooden slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
左-oracle.svg 左-bronze.svg 左-silk.svg 左-slip.svg 左-seal.svg 左-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔsaːlʔ, *ʔsaːls
*ʔsaːls
*ʔslaːls
*sʰlaːl
*sʰlaːl, *sʰlaːlʔ
*sʰlaːl
*sʰlaːl
*sʰlaːl, *sraːl, *ʔsraːls
*sʰlaːl, *slaːl
*zlaːl
*zlaːl, *ʔsljal, *sʰreːls
*zlaːl
*zlaːl, *sʰral
*zlaːl
*zlaːl, *ʔsljal, *ʔslɯl
*zlaːl, *sʰraːl
*zlaːl, *sʰral, *zral
*slaːlʔ, *sʰral, *sʰlaːɡ
*slaːlʔ
*ʔsljal
*sʰraːl, *sʰraːls, *sʰreːl, *sʰreːl, *sʰreːls, *sʰral
*sʰraːl
*zraːl, *zraːlʔ
*zlals

Originally as 𠂇 in the oracle bone script: Pictogram (象形) – a left hand. Compare (“right hand”).

Late bronze inscription forms show an added (“work; to assist?”) component, i.e. the current form is a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ʔsaːlʔ, *ʔsaːls): phonetic 𠂇 + semantic , representing the original form of (OC *ʔsaːls, “to assist”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Quanzhou:
    • chó - vernacular;
    • chó͘ - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡suo²¹⁴/
Harbin /t͡suo²¹³/
Tianjin /t͡suo¹³/
Jinan /t͡suə²¹/
Qingdao /t͡suə²¹³/
Zhengzhou /t͡suo⁵³/
Xi'an /t͡suo⁵³/
Xining /t͡su⁵³/
Yinchuan /t͡suə⁵³/
Lanzhou /t͡suə⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /t͡suɤ⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡suo⁴²/
Chengdu /t͡so⁵³/
Guiyang /t͡so⁴²/
Kunming /t͡so⁵³/
Nanjing /t͡so²¹²/
Hefei /t͡sʊ²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sɤ⁵³/
Pingyao /t͡ɕie̞³⁵/
Hohhot /t͡suɤ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /t͡su³⁵/
Suzhou /t͡səu⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /t͡so⁵³/
Wenzhou /t͡sɤu³⁵/
Hui Shexian /t͡so³⁵/
Tunxi /t͡so³¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡so⁴¹/
Xiangtan /t͡so⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /t͡so²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /t͡so³¹/
Taoyuan /t͡so³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sɔ³⁵/
Nanning /t͡sɔ³⁵/
Hong Kong /t͡sɔ³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡so⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡so³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sɔ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡so⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /to²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (13) (13)
Final () (94) (94)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sɑX/ /t͡sɑH/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sɑX/ /t͡sɑH/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sɑX/ /t͡sɑH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡saX/ /t͡saH/
Li
Rong
/t͡sɑX/ /t͡sɑH/
Wang
Li
/t͡sɑX/ /t͡sɑH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sɑX/ /t͡sɑH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zuǒ zuò
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zuǒ zuǒ zuǒ
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsaX › ‹ tsaX › ‹ tsaH ›
Old
Chinese
/*tsˤa[j]ʔ/ /*tsˤa[j]ʔ/ /*tsˤarʔ-s/
English left (side) assist assist

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 18004 18006
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔsaːlʔ/ /*ʔsaːls/

Definitions[edit]

  1. left (direction)
      ―  zuǒshǒu  ―  left hand
  2. east; areas to the east
  3. (historical) inferior position
  4. unorthodox; wrong
  5. erroneously; mistakingly
      ―  Nǐ xiǎng zuǒ le.  ―  You are mistaken.
  6. different; divided; inconsistent
  7. (politics) left-wing
  8. (Sichuan, of singing) out of tune; off-key
  9. (Southwestern Mandarin, including Sichuan) to exchange
  10. A surname​.

Antonyms[edit]

  • (yòu, “right”)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ひだり
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

/hidari/: *[pidari] → [ɸidari] → [çidari].

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ひだり, rōmaji hidari)

  1. (direction) left, the side of the left hand
    • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 229)
      Fidari. ヒダリ (左) 左手, または, 左の方
    • 1999 August 10, “ふういんされしものひだりうで [Left Arm of the Sealed One]”, in 幻の召喚神 [Phantom God] (in Japanese), Konami:
       (ふう) (いん)された (ひだり) (うで) (ふう) (いん) ()くと、 () (げん) (ちから) ()られる。
      Fūinsareta hidariude. Fūin o toku to, mugen no chikara o erareru.
      A sealed left arm. Whosoever breaks the seal shall earn infinite power.
  2. (politics) a leftist
Antonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
on’yomi

Middle Chinese

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji sa)

  1. the left in vertical writing
  2. the following (one)
    • 1905, Natsume Sōseki, 吾輩は猫である:
      吾輩 (わがはい)はまず (かれ)がどのくらい無学 (むがく)であるかを (ため)してみようと (おも)って () (もん) (どう)をして ()た。
      Wagahai wa mazu kare ga dono kurai mugaku de aru ka o tameshite miyō to omotte sa no mondō o shite mita.
      To judge just how uneducated he was, I posed the following question.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Sound: [t͡ɕwɐ]
  • Name: [øn]/[we̞n]

Hanja[edit]

(jwa)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (McCune-Reischauer: chwa, Yale: cwa)
    • Name (hangeul): (revised: oen, McCune-Reischauer: oen, Yale: oyn)
  1. left (direction)

Derived terms[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tả, )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.