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U+5DE6, 左
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5DE6

[U+5DE5]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5DE7]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 48, +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 大一 (KM), four-corner 40011, composition𠂇)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 325, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 8720
  • Dae Jaweon: page 626, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 411, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+5DE6

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠂇
𢀡

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
左-oracle.svg 左-bronze.svg 左-silk.svg 左-slip.svg 左-seal.svg 左-bigseal.svg

Originally as 𠂇 in the oracle bone script: Pictogram (象形) – a left hand. Compare (“right hand”).

Late bronze inscription forms show an added (“work; to assist?”) component, i.e. the current form is a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ʔsaːlʔ, *ʔsaːls): phonetic 𠂇 + semantic , representing the original form of (OC *ʔsaːls, “to assist”).

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with (OC *ʔsaːls, “to assist”) (< be on one's left side); mirror of the semantic relationship between (OC *ɢʷɯʔ, “right”) and (OC *ɢʷɯs, “to assist”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Unrelated to Proto-Tibeto-Burman *b(w)aj (left (hand)) (STEDT).

“(politics) left-wing”
Semantic loan from English left, in turn a semantic loan from French gauche.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • Quanzhou:
    • chó - vernacular;
    • chó͘ - literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡suo²¹⁴/
    Harbin /t͡suo²¹³/
    Tianjin /t͡suo¹³/
    Jinan /t͡suə²¹/
    Qingdao /t͡suə²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /t͡suo⁵³/
    Xi'an /t͡suo⁵³/
    Xining /t͡su⁵³/
    Yinchuan /t͡suə⁵³/
    Lanzhou /t͡suə⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /t͡suɤ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /t͡suo⁴²/
    Chengdu /t͡so⁵³/
    Guiyang /t͡so⁴²/
    Kunming /t͡so⁵³/
    Nanjing /t͡so²¹²/
    Hefei /t͡sʊ²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sɤ⁵³/
    Pingyao /t͡ɕie̞³⁵/
    Hohhot /t͡suɤ⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡su³⁵/
    Suzhou /t͡səu⁵¹³/
    Hangzhou /t͡so⁵³/
    Wenzhou /t͡sɤu³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /t͡so³⁵/
    Tunxi /t͡so³¹/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡so⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /t͡so⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡so²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡so³¹/
    Taoyuan /t͡so³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sɔ³⁵/
    Nanning /t͡sɔ³⁵/
    Hong Kong /t͡sɔ³⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡so⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡so³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sɔ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡so⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /to²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (13)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sɑX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sɑX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sɑX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡saX/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sɑX/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sɑX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sɑX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zuǒ
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zuǒ
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsaX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tsˁa[j]ʔ/
    English left (side)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 18004
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔsaːlʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. left (direction)
        ―  zuǒshǒu  ―  left hand
    2. east; areas to the east
    3. (historical) inferior position
    4. unorthodox; wrong
    5. erroneously; mistakingly
        ―  Nǐ xiǎng zuǒ le.  ―  You are mistaken.
    6. different; divided; inconsistent
    7. (politics) left-wing
    8. (Sichuan, of singing) out of tune; off-key
    9. (Southwestern Mandarin, including Sichuan) to exchange
    10. A surname​.
    Usage notes[edit]

    In communist publications, is usually put in quotation marks when referring to something further to the left of the correct party line.

    Synonyms[edit]
    Antonyms[edit]
    • (yòu, “right”)

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (13) (13)
    Final () (94) (94)
    Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sɑX/ /t͡sɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sɑX/ /t͡sɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sɑX/ /t͡sɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡saX/ /t͡saH/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sɑX/ /t͡sɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sɑX/ /t͡sɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sɑX/ /t͡sɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zuǒ zuò
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zuǒ zuǒ
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsaX › ‹ tsaH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tsˁa[j]ʔ/ /*tsˁarʔ-s/
    English assist assist

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 18004 18006
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1 1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔsaːlʔ/ /*ʔsaːls/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Original form of (zuǒ, “to assist”).

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (sa)
    • Korean: (, jwa)
    • Vietnamese: tả ()

    Others:

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひだり
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /hidari/: *[pidari] → [ɸidari] → [çidari].

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ひだり) (hidari

    1. (direction) left, the side of the left hand
      • 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 229)
        Fidari. ヒダリ (左) 左手, または, 左の方
      • 1999 August 10, “(ふう)(いん)されし(もの)(ひだり)(うで) [Left Arm of the Sealed One]”, in 幻の召喚神 [Phantom God], Konami:
        (ふう)(いん)された(ひだり)(うで)(ふう)(いん)()くと、()(げん)(ちから)()られる。
        Fūinsareta hidariude. Fūin o toku to, mugen no chikara o erareru.
        A sealed left arm. Whosoever breaks the seal shall earn infinite power.
    2. (politics) a leftist
    Antonyms[edit]
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    Middle Chinese

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (sa

    1. the left in vertical writing
    2. the following (one)
      • 190506, Natsume Sōseki, I Am a Cat (text here):
        吾輩(わがはい)はまず(かれ)がどのくらい無学(むがく)であるかを(ため)してみようと(おも)って()問答(もんどう)をして()た。
        Wagahai wa mazu kare ga dono kurai mugaku de aru ka o tameshite miyō to omotte sa no mondō o shite mita.
        To judge just how uneducated he was, I posed the following question.

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • Sound: [t͡ɕwɐ]
    • Name: [øn]/[we̞n]

    Hanja[edit]

    (jwa)

    1. left (direction)

    Derived terms[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (tả, )

    1. left (direction)