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See also: and
U+5DEE, 差
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5DEE

[U+5DED]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5DEF]

Translingual[edit]

Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative forms[edit]

Note that the character in simplified Chinese has 9 strokes. Simplified from (𦍌丿)

Han character[edit]

(radical 48, +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 廿手一 (TQM), four-corner 80211, composition𦍌丿(HTJK) or ⿸(GV))

Stroke order
10 strokes

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 326, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 8732
  • Dae Jaweon: page 629, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 413, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5DEE

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms

𢀩
𢀠
𢀞

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
差-bronze.svg 差-seal.svg 差-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔsaːlʔ, *ʔsaːls
*ʔsaːls
*ʔslaːls
*sʰlaːl
*sʰlaːl, *sʰlaːlʔ
*sʰlaːl
*sʰlaːl
*sʰlaːl, *sraːl, *ʔsraːls
*sʰlaːl, *slaːl
*zlaːl
*zlaːl, *ʔsljal, *sʰreːls
*zlaːl
*zlaːl, *sʰral
*zlaːl
*zlaːl, *ʔsljal, *ʔslɯl
*zlaːl, *sʰraːl
*zlaːl, *sʰral, *zral
*slaːlʔ, *sʰral, *sʰlaːɡ
*slaːlʔ
*ʔsljal
*sʰraːl, *sʰraːls, *sʰreːl, *sʰreːl, *sʰreːls, *sʰral
*sʰraːl
*zraːl, *zraːlʔ
*zlals

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (wheat) +  (hand) – to hull wheat by rubbing grains inside hands. Original form of (OC *sʰlaːl, “to rub with hands; to scrub; to twist”).

or was later added under to form (OC *ʔsaːlʔ, *ʔsaːls, “left”), which is also this character's phonetic component.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • chā - literary (“to differ; mistake; (maths) difference; barely”);
  • chà - colloquial (“to differ; wrong; inferior; to be short of; to owe”).
  • Cantonese
  • Hakka
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/5 2/5 3/5
    Initial () (19) (19) (19)
    Final () (13) (31) (33)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open Open Open
    Division () Chongniu III II II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ʃʰˠiᴇ/ /t͡ʃʰˠɛ/ /t͡ʃʰˠɛi/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʈ͡ʂʰᵚiɛ/ /ʈ͡ʂʰᵚæ/ /ʈ͡ʂʰᵚæi/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ʃʰiɛ/ /t͡ʃʰæi/ /t͡ʃʰɐi/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʈ͡ʂʰjiə̆/ /ʈ͡ʂʰaɨj/ /ʈ͡ʂʰəɨj/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ʃʰje/ /t͡ʃʰɛ/ /t͡ʃʰɛi/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ʃʰǐe/ /t͡ʃʰai/ /t͡ʃʰɐi/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʈ͡ʂʰie̯/ /ʈ͡ʂʰai/ /ʈ͡ʂʰăi/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chī chāi chāi
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/5
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    chā
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsrhæ ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tsʰraj/
    English distinction; to select

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/6 3/6 4/6
    No. 18030 18037 18038
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1 2 2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰraːls/ /*sʰreːl/ /*sʰreːl/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to differ from; to be different; dissimilar; incongruous
    2. wrong; incorrect; erroneous
    3. inferior; poor; substandard
    4. difference; discrepancy
    5. mistake; wrongdoing
    6. (mathematics) difference
    7. to be short of; to fall short of
    8. to owe
    9. rather; barely; nearly; almost
    10. 11th tetragram of the Taixuanjing

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • chhe/chhee - vernacular;
    • chhai - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 4/5
    Initial () (19)
    Final () (98)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ʃʰˠa/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʈ͡ʂʰᵚa/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ʃʰa/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʈ͡ʂʰaɨ/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ʃʰa/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ʃʰa/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʈ͡ʂʰa/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chā
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/5 3/5
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    chāi chāi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsrhɛ › ‹ tsrhɛj ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[tsʰ]raj/ /*[tsʰ](ˁ)raj/
    English distinction; to select distinction; to select

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/6
    No. 18029
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰraːl/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to dispatch; to assign; to send on an errand
    2. to select; to choose
    3. (historical) runner; courier; envoy; messenger
    4. (historical) corvée
    5. errand; task

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 3[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/5 2/5 3/5
    Initial () (19) (19) (19)
    Final () (13) (31) (33)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open Open Open
    Division () Chongniu III II II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ʃʰˠiᴇ/ /t͡ʃʰˠɛ/ /t͡ʃʰˠɛi/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʈ͡ʂʰᵚiɛ/ /ʈ͡ʂʰᵚæ/ /ʈ͡ʂʰᵚæi/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ʃʰiɛ/ /t͡ʃʰæi/ /t͡ʃʰɐi/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʈ͡ʂʰjiə̆/ /ʈ͡ʂʰaɨj/ /ʈ͡ʂʰəɨj/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ʃʰje/ /t͡ʃʰɛ/ /t͡ʃʰɛi/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ʃʰǐe/ /t͡ʃʰai/ /t͡ʃʰɐi/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʈ͡ʂʰie̯/ /ʈ͡ʂʰai/ /ʈ͡ʂʰăi/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chī chāi chāi
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 4/5
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsrhje ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tsʰraj/
    English 參差 uneven

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 6/6
    No. 18042
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰral/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. uneven; irregular; rough
      /   ―  cēn  ―  uneven
    2. to distinguish; to grade; to classify
    3. grade; rank
    4. limit; boundary

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 4[edit]



    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 5/5
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    cuō
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsha ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[tsʰ]ˁaj/
    English rub, polish, file (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Original form of (cuō, “to rub with one's hands; to scrub; to twist”).

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 5[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 5/5
    Initial () (19)
    Final () (31)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ʃʰˠɛH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʈ͡ʂʰᵚæH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ʃʰæiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʈ͡ʂʰaɨjH/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ʃʰɛH/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ʃʰaiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʈ͡ʂʰaiH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chài
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 5/6
    No. 18039
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰreːls/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Original form of (“to recover from an illness”).

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ʃʰˠiᴇ, t͡ʃʰˠɛ, t͡ʃʰˠɛi, t͡ʃʰˠa, t͡ʃʰˠɛH).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji sa)

    1. (generally) difference
       () (きん) (りょく) () ()ける
      shikin ryoku de sa o tsukeru
      to make a difference in the financial power
      Synonyms: 差異 (sai), 違い (chigai)
    2. (arithmetic) difference
       (きゅう) (じゅう) (なな) (じゅう) (はち) () (じゅう) ()である。
      Kyūjū to nanajūhachi no sa wa jūni de aru.
      The difference of ninety and seventy-eight is twelve.
      Antonym: (wa) (sum)

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (chi, cha, chae) (hangeul , , , revised chi, cha, chae, McCune–Reischauer ch'i, ch'a, ch'ae, Yale chi, cha, chay)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (sai, sái, si, sươi, sau, sây, soa)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.