Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: and
U+4E18, 丘
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E18

[U+4E17]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E19]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 1, +4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 人一 (OM), four-corner 72101, composition)

  1. Shuowen Jiezi radical №293

Derived characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :

Wikisource


  • KangXi: page 77, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 33
  • Dae Jaweon: page 156, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 17, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4E18

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
丘-oracle.svg ACC-b12629.svg 丘-bronze-warring.svg 丘-silk.svg 丘-slip.svg ACC-s05952.svg 丘-seal.svg 丘-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogram (指事) – hill. Earlier form closer to , as in (OC *kʰa, *qʰa). Compare .

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Wang (1982) relates this word to () "ruin-mound". However, Schuessler (2007) disagrees.

Schuessler considers two homophones , "hill, mound" & "village, district" to be the same word as settlements were often built on elevated grounds (for a parallel see (jīng)) and traces this word's etymology to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r/g-wa (village); within Sinitic, (OC *kʰʷɯ) is cognate with (OC *rɯʔ) "village" & (OC *kreː, *kreː) "road crossing, street"; outsides Sinitic, cognate with Mizo khua (village), Lai khûa (village, cosmos), Burmese ရွာ (rwa, village) (STEDT).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • khu - vernacular;
  • khiu - literary.
Note:
  • ku1 - vernacular;
  • kiu1 - literary.
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (136)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰɨu/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰiu/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰiəu/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰuw/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰiu/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰĭəu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰi̯ə̯u/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qiū
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qiū
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khjuw ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]ʷʰə/
    English hill, mound

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10523
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰʷɯ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. mound; hill
    2. grave
    3. to place a coffin in a temporary shelter pending burial
    4. (dialectal) Classifier for fields: plot

    Usage notes[edit]

    See (qiū).

    See also[edit]
    • (hills): (shān)

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    simp. and trad.

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. A surname​.

    Etymology 3[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“mound; hill; plot”).
    (This character, , is the simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    おか
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Alternative forms[edit]

    • (less common)
    • (less common)

    Noun[edit]

    (おか) (oka

    1. hill
      (おか)(くだ)
      oka o kudaru
      to go down a hill

    Korean[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰɨu). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: kwu) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 언덕 (eondeok gu))

    1. Hanja form? of (small hill).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Kunigami[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (おか, oka).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ふぁーい, romaji fāi)

    1. hill

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (khâu, kheo, khưu)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]