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U+5410, 吐
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5410

[U+540F]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5411]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
6 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 30, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 口土 (RG), four-corner 64010, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 176, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3300
  • Dae Jaweon: page 393, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 576, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+5410

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɦljaːʔ
*ʔl'aːʔ, *l'aːʔ
*l̥ʰaːʔ, *l'aːʔ
*l̥ʰaːʔ, *l̥ʰaːs
*l̥ʰaːʔ
*l'aːʔ
*l'aːʔ
*l'aːʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *l̥ʰaːʔ, *l̥ʰaːs): semantic  (mouth) + phonetic  (OC *l̥ʰaːʔ, *l'aːʔ).

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s-twa (to spit).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: tou2 - rare.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (6)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰuoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰuoX/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰoX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰɔX/
Li
Rong
/tʰoX/
Wang
Li
/tʰuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰuoX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ thuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*tʰˁaʔ/
English eject from mouth, spit

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 12500
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*l̥ʰaːʔ/
Definitions[edit]

  1. to spit; to spew from the mouth
  2. to say; to tell; to pour out
  3. A surname​.
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of (“to spit”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou , 𦧲
Hong Kong , 𦧲
Taishan , 𦧲
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian ,
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Hsinchu (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an) ,
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Philippines (Manila)
Chaozhou
Wu Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng
Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (6)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰuoH/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰuoH/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰoH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰɔH/
Li
Rong
/tʰoH/
Wang
Li
/tʰuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰuoH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ thuH ›
Old
Chinese
/*tʰˁaʔ-s/
English vomit

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 12502
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*l̥ʰaːs/
Definitions[edit]

  1. to vomit; to throw up
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of 嘔吐 (“to vomit”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 嘔吐
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan , ,
Chengdu , 發吐
Yangzhou ,
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian ,
Miaoli (N. Sixian) , , 翻肚
Liudui (S. Sixian) , , 翻肚
Hsinchu (Hailu) , , 翻肚
Dongshi (Dabu) , , 翻肚
Hsinchu (Raoping) , , 翻肚
Yunlin (Zhao'an) , 貶腹
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou , ,
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Philippines (Manila)
Chaozhou
Wu Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng
Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 吐谷渾吐谷浑 (tǔyùhún).

Etymology 3[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“(Min Nan) over; to reveal; to peck”).
(This character, , is a variant form of .)

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. vomit, belch, spit (out)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(to) (hangeul , revised to, McCune–Reischauer t'o, Yale tho)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Noun[edit]

吐 (, to)

  1. An affixal letter used in kwukyel.


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thổ, nhổ, giổ, giỗ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.