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U+91CF, 量
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-91CF

[U+91CE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+91D0]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 166 +5, 12 strokes, cangjie input 日一田土 (AMWG), four-corner 60104, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1292, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40138
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1794, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3683, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+91CF

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𣊹
𨤥
𨤦
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
量-oracle.svg 量-bronze.svg 量-silk.svg 量-seal.svg 量-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*raŋ
*raŋ, *raŋs

Inconclusive. In the oracle bone and bronze scripts, the most common form was (sun) +  (bag; east). Here are a few proposed interpretations as an ideogrammic compound (會意):

  • was sometimes replaced with , so Qiu Xigui thinks that it may be the original character of (OC *raŋ, “grain field”).
  • Yu Xingwu interprets it as measuring something under the sun.
  • Guo Moruo interprets it as the sun rising in the east – original character of (OC *raŋs).

Shuowen interprets this as a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *raŋ, *raŋs): phonetic  (OC *qʰjaŋʔ, *qʰjaŋs, *qʰaŋʔ, *qʰaŋs) +  (weight; heavy).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • niû/niô͘ - vernacular;
  • liông/liâng - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (37)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɨɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/liɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/liɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lɨaŋ/
Li
Rong
/liaŋ/
Wang
Li
/lĭaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯aŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
liáng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
liáng
Middle
Chinese
‹ ljang ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]aŋ/
English measure (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 8064
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*raŋ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. to measure
  2. to estimate; to evaluate

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Note:
  • niū/niō͘ - vernacular;
  • liōng/liāng - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (37)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɨɐŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/liɐŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/liɑŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lɨaŋH/
Li
Rong
/liaŋH/
Wang
Li
/lĭaŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯aŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
liàng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
liàng
Middle
Chinese
‹ ljangH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]aŋ-s/
English measure (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 8065
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*raŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (historical) measuring vessel, such as the dou or hu
  2. measure; measurement; quantity
  3. capacity; volume
  4. (Buddhist logic) pramana
  5. (Min Nan) large steelyard
  6. to estimate; to approximate

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
りょう
Grade: 4
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (ljangH, measure).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana りょう, rōmaji ryō, historical hiragana りやう)

  1. volume, amount
     (こう) (つう) (りょう)
    kōtsū-ryō
    amount of traffic
  2. (Buddhist logic) pramana
     () (りょう)
    hi-ryō
    pramana of Reasoning

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
はか
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

Cognate with 計り (hakari).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana はか, rōmaji haka) Form of 量り (hakari)

  1. an instrument to measure

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(ryang>yang) (hangeul >, revised ryang>yang, McCune-Reischauer ryang>yang, Yale lyang>yang)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(lường, lượng, nhân)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.