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U+91CF, 量
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-91CF

[U+91CE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+91D0]
U+F97E, 量
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F97E

[U+F97D]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs 勵
[U+F97F]

Translingual

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Han character

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Stroke order
12 strokes
Stroke order (Taiwan)
12 strokes

(Kangxi radical 166, +5, 12 strokes, cangjie input 日一田土 (AMWG), four-corner 60104, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1292, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40138
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1794, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3683, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+91CF

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
2nd round simp. 𰅊
alternative forms 𣊹
𨤥
𨤦
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Inconclusive. In the oracle bone and bronze scripts, the most common form was (sun) + (bag; east). Here are a few proposed interpretations as an ideogrammic compound (會意会意) :

  • was sometimes replaced with , so Qiu Xigui thinks that it may be the original character of (OC *raŋ, “grain field”).
  • Yu Xingwu interprets it as measuring something under the sun.
  • Guo Moruo interprets it as the sun rising in the east – original character of (OC *raŋs).

Shuowen interprets this as a phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *raŋ, *raŋs) : phonetic (OC *qʰjaŋʔ, *qʰjaŋs, *qʰaŋʔ, *qʰaŋs) + (weight; heavy).

Etymology

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From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(g/k)raŋ (to count, to measure) (STEDT; Schuessler, 2007). Cognate to Tibetan བགྲང (bgrang, to count), Khaling ʾkhran-ne, Burmese ခြင် (hkrang, to measure capacity), Nusu xɹɯ³¹ (to count).

Pronunciation 2 is possibly a *-s suffixed exopassive derivation of Pronunciation 1; thus it means "what is measured → a measure" and is cognate to Tibetan གྲངས (grangs, number) (see also Unger (1983))

Pronunciation 1

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Note:
  • niû/niô͘ - vernacular;
  • liông/liâng - literary.
Note:
  • liang5 - literary;
  • nion5/niên5 - vernacular (niên5 - Chaozhou).

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (37)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter ljang
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɨɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/liɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/liɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lɨaŋ/
Li
Rong
/liaŋ/
Wang
Li
/lĭaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯aŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
liáng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
loeng4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
liáng
Middle
Chinese
‹ ljang ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]aŋ/
English measure (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 8064
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*raŋ/
Notes


Definitions

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  1. to measure
  2. to estimate; to evaluate
Synonyms
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Compounds

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Pronunciation 2

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Note:
  • niū/niō͘ - vernacular;
  • liōng/liāng - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (37)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter ljangH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɨɐŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/liɐŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/liɑŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lɨaŋH/
Li
Rong
/liaŋH/
Wang
Li
/lĭaŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯aŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
liàng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
loeng6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
liàng
Middle
Chinese
‹ ljangH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]aŋ-s/
English measure (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 8065
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*raŋs/

Definitions

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  1. (historical) measuring vessel, such as the dou or hu
  2. measure; measurement; quantity
  3. capacity; volume
  4. (Buddhist logic) pramana
  5. (Southern Min) large steelyard
  6. to estimate; to approximate

Compounds

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References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

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From Middle Chinese (MC ljang); compare Mandarin (liáng):

From Middle Chinese (MC ljangH); compare Mandarin (liàng):

From native Japanese roots:

Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
りょう
Grade: 4
kan’on
  on Japanese Wikipedia

From Middle Chinese (MC ljangH, “measure”).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(りょう) (ryōりやう (ryau)?

  1. volume, amount
    交通(こうつう)(りょう)
    kōtsū-ryō
    amount of traffic
    なかなか(りょう)
    nakanaka no ryō
    a considerable amount
  2. (Buddhist logic) pramana
    ()(りょう)
    hi-ryō
    pramana of Reasoning

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
はか
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

Cognate with 計り (hakari).[1]

Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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(はか) (haka

  1. progress

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN

Korean

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Hanja

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(eumhun 헤아릴 (hearil ryang), word-initial (South Korea) 헤아릴 (hearil yang))

  1. Hanja form? of / (volume; amount).

Compounds

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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: lường, lượng, nhân

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.