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U+91CF, 量
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-91CF

[U+91CE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+91D0]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 166, +5, 12 strokes, cangjie input 日一田土 (AMWG), four-corner 60104, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1292, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40138
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1794, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3683, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+91CF

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𣊹
𨤥
𨤦
⿱旦力 second round simplified
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
量-oracle.svg 量-bronze.svg 量-silk.svg 量-seal.svg 量-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*raŋ
*raŋ, *raŋs

Inconclusive. In the oracle bone and bronze scripts, the most common form was (sun) +  (bag; east). Here are a few proposed interpretations as an ideogrammic compound (會意):

  • was sometimes replaced with , so Qiu Xigui thinks that it may be the original character of (OC *raŋ, “grain field”).
  • Yu Xingwu interprets it as measuring something under the sun.
  • Guo Moruo interprets it as the sun rising in the east – original character of (OC *raŋs).

Shuowen interprets this as a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *raŋ, *raŋs): phonetic  (OC *qʰjaŋʔ, *qʰjaŋs, *qʰaŋʔ, *qʰaŋs) +  (weight; heavy).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • niû/niô͘ - vernacular;
  • liông/liâng - literary.
Note:
  • liang5 - literary;
  • nion5/niên5 - vernacular (niên5 - Chaozhou).
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɨɐŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /liɐŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /liɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lɨaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /liaŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /lĭaŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /li̯aŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    liáng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    liáng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ljang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[r]aŋ/
    English measure (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 8064
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*raŋ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to measure
    2. to estimate; to evaluate

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • niū/niō͘ - vernacular;
    • liōng/liāng - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɨɐŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /liɐŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /liɑŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lɨaŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /liaŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /lĭaŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /li̯aŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    liàng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    liàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ljangH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[r]aŋ-s/
    English measure (n.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 8065
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*raŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (historical) measuring vessel, such as the dou or hu
    2. measure; measurement; quantity
    3. capacity; volume
    4. (Buddhist logic) pramana
    5. (Min Nan) large steelyard
    6. to estimate; to approximate

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    りょう
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (ljangH, measure).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana りょう, rōmaji ryō, historical hiragana りやう)

    1. volume, amount
       (こう) (つう) (りょう)
      kōtsū-ryō
      amount of traffic
    2. (Buddhist logic) pramana
       () (りょう)
      hi-ryō
      pramana of Reasoning

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    はか
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with 計り (hakari).[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana はか, rōmaji haka) Form of 量り (hakari)

    1. an instrument to measure

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (ryang>yang) (hangeul >, revised ryang>yang, McCune–Reischauer ryang>yang, Yale lyang>yang)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (lường, lượng, nhân)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.