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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 72 +13, 17 strokes, cangjie input 日女竹中 (AVHL), four-corner 60227, composition)

  1. once upon a time
  2. period of time
  3. toward
  4. direction
  5. trend
  6. shortly before, formerly
  7. a surname

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 500, character 27
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14195
  • Dae Jaweon: page 870, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1534, character 21
  • Unihan data for U+66CF

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Large seal script Small seal script
曏-bigseal.svg 曏-seal.svg

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/4

Initial: (32)
Final: (105)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: xǎng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/hɨɐŋX/ /hiɐŋX/ /xiɑŋX/ /hɨaŋX/ /xiaŋX/ /xĭaŋX/ /xi̯aŋX/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/4

Initial: (26)
Final: (105)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: shǎng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɕɨɐŋX/ /ɕiɐŋX/ /ɕiɑŋX/ /ɕɨaŋX/ /ɕiaŋX/ /ɕĭaŋX/ /ɕi̯aŋX/
Character (), Pronunciation 3/4

Initial: (26)
Final: (105)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: shàng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɕɨɐŋH/ /ɕiɐŋH/ /ɕiɑŋH/ /ɕɨaŋH/ /ɕiaŋH/ /ɕĭaŋH/ /ɕi̯aŋH/
Character (), Pronunciation 4/4

Initial: (32)
Final: (105)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: xàng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/hɨɐŋH/ /hiɐŋH/ /xiɑŋH/ /hɨaŋH/ /xiaŋH/ /xĭaŋH/ /xi̯aŋH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
shǎng ‹ syangX › /*n̥aŋʔ/ a short time
shàng ‹ syangH › /*n̥aŋ-s/ a short time
xiǎng ‹ xjangX › /*n̥aŋʔ (W dialect: *n̥- > MC x-)/ a short time
xiàng ‹ xjangH › /*n̥aŋʔ-s (W dialect: *n̥- > MC x-)/ a short time

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
13594 0 /*qʰjaŋʔ/
13595 0 /*qʰjaŋs/
13603 0 /*qʰaŋʔ/
13604 0 /*qʰaŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. once upon time
  2. period of time

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(hyang, sang) (hangeul , , revised hyang, sang, McCune-Reischauer hyang, sang)

  1. lean towards
  2. advance
  3. see, look at

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hướng)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.