Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
U+52AA, 努
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-52AA

[U+52A9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+52AB]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 19, +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 女水大尸 (VEKS), four-corner 47427, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 146, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2314
  • Dae Jaweon: page 331, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 369, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+52AA

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*rnaː
*rnaː
*rnaː
*rnaː, *na
*rnaː, *naː, *naːs
*rnaː, *na
*rnaːs, *nas, *snas, *nas
*rnaːw
*rnaːw
*n̥ʰaːŋʔ, *naː
*naː
*naː, *naːʔ
*naː
*naː
*naːʔ
*naːʔ
*naːʔ, *naːs
*na
*na
*naʔ, *nas
*naʔ
*hnjas
*nja, *njas
*nja, *njaʔ, *njas
*nja, *njas
*nja
*nja
*njaʔ
*njaʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *naːʔ): semantic  (strength) + phonetic  (OC *naː) – exert one’s strength.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Quanzhou:
    • ló͘ - literary;
    • lǒ͘ - vernacular.
  • (Teochew)

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (23)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nuoX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nuoX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /noX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nɔX/
    Li
    Rong
    /noX/
    Wang
    Li
    /nuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /nuoX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9606
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*naːʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to exert; to strive; to make an effort
    2. to pout

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    Middle Chinese

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji do)

    1. work, toil

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji do)

    1. the third of the Eight Principles of Yong
    Hypernyms[edit]
    Coordinate terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    つとむ
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    Nominalization of the classical Japanese verb 努む (tsutomu) (modern 努める (tsutomeru, to work, to toil)).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana つとむ, rōmaji Tsutomu)

    1. A male given name

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (no) (hangeul , revised no, McCune–Reischauer no)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (nỗ)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.