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U+52AA, 努
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-52AA

[U+52A9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+52AB]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 19 +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 女水大尸 (VEKS), four-corner 47427, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 146, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2314
  • Dae Jaweon: page 331, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 369, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+52AA

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*rnaː
*rnaː
*rnaː
*rnaː, *na
*rnaː, *naː, *naːs
*rnaː, *na
*rnaːs, *nas, *snas, *nas
*rnaːw
*rnaːw
*n̥ʰaːŋʔ, *naː
*naː
*naː, *naːʔ
*naː
*naː
*naːʔ
*naːʔ
*naːʔ, *naːs
*na
*na
*naʔ, *nas
*naʔ
*hnjas
*nja, *njas
*nja, *njaʔ, *njas
*nja, *njas
*nja
*nja
*njaʔ
*njaʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *naːʔ): semantic  (strength) + phonetic  (OC *naː) – exert one’s strength.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Quanzhou:
    • ló͘ - literary;
    • lǒ͘ - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (8)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nuoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/nuoX/
Shao
Rongfen
/noX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nɔX/
Li
Rong
/noX/
Wang
Li
/nuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nuoX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9606
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*naːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to exert; to strive; to make an effort
  2. to pout

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. work, toil

Readings[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
つとむ
Grade: 4
kun'yomi

Nominalization of the classical Japanese verb 努む (tsutomu) (modern 努める (tsutomeru, to work, to toil)).

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana つとむ, rōmaji Tsutomu)

  1. A male given name

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(no) (hangeul , revised no, McCune-Reischauer no)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nỗ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.