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Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character[edit]

(radical 84 +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 人弓火木 (ONFD), four-corner 80917, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 599, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17059
  • Dae Jaweon: page 990, character 26
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2011, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+6C23

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰɯds, *qʰɯds): phonetic  ‎(OC *kʰɯds) + semantic  ‎(rice) – to give rice as a gift.

Later borrowed meanings of “air, flow” from (OC *kʰɯds). The derivative (OC *qʰɯds) refers to the original word. Compare (OC *kʰɯds, *kʰɯd).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰi⁵¹/
Harbin /t͡ɕʰi⁵³/
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰi⁵³/
Jinan /t͡ɕʰi²¹/
Qingdao /t͡ɕʰi⁴²/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕʰi³¹²/
Xi'an /t͡ɕʰi⁴⁴/
Xining /t͡ɕʰji²¹³/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰi¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰi¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰi²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡ɕʰi³⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕʰi¹³/
Guiyang /t͡ɕʰi²¹³/
Kunming /t͡ɕʰi²¹²/
Nanjing /t͡ɕʰi⁴⁴/
Hefei /t͡sʰz̩⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰi⁴⁵/
Pingyao /t͡ɕʰi³⁵/
Hohhot /t͡ɕʰi⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕʰi³⁵/
Suzhou /t͡ɕʰi⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕʰi⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /t͡sʰz̩⁴²/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰi³²⁴/
Tunxi /t͡ɕʰi⁴²/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕʰi⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕʰi⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰi²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /hi⁵³/
Taoyuan /hi⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hei³³/
Nanning /hi³³/
Hong Kong /hei³³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰi²¹/
/kʰui²¹/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰɛi²¹²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰi³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰi²¹³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /xi³⁵/
/xui³⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (29) (32)
Final () (20) (20)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰɨiH/ /hɨiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰɨiH/ /hɨiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰiəiH/ /xiəiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰɨjH/ /hɨjH/
Li
Rong
/kʰiəiH/ /xiəiH/
Wang
Li
/kʰĭəiH/ /xĭəiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰe̯iH/ /xe̯iH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ khjɨjH › ‹ xjɨjH ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.qʰəp-s/ /*qʰət-s/
English cloudy vapors to present food

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 10140 10143
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰɯds/ /*qʰɯds/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. air; gas
    天然 / 天然  ―  tiānrán  ―  natural gas
    出去 / 出去  ―  Chūqù tòu tòu!  ―  Go out to breathe fresh air!
    輪胎 / 轮胎  ―  Lúntāi lòu le.  ―  The tire is leaking gas.
  2. breath
    喘不過 / 喘不过  ―  chuǎnbùguò lái  ―  to be out of breath
    戰鬥最后 [MSC, trad.]
    战斗最后 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ huì zhàndòu dào zuìhòu yī kǒu . [Pinyin]
    I will fight to my last breath.
  3. (Chinese philosophy) qi; vital energy; life force
  4. smell; odour
    /   ―  wèi  ―  smell
    廚炊煙火衣服去掉 [MSC, trad.]
    厨炊烟火衣服去掉 [MSC, simp.]
    Bǎ chúchuī de yānhuǒ cóng yīfú shàng qùdiào shì hěn nán de. [Pinyin]
    It is difficult to remove the smell of cooking from clothes.
  5. weather
    /   ―  tiān  ―  weather
  6. to get angry
    /   ―  shēng  ―  to get angry
  7. to make angry, to annoy
    /   ―  Bié wǒ!  ―  Don't annoy me!
  8. to breathe
  9. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    男人 / 男人  ―  yǒu nánrén   ―  manly

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

Readings[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Not used in modern Japanese. Replaced by the shinjitai form .


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(gi) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer ki, Yale ki)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(khí)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.