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Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character[edit]

(radical 84 +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 人弓火木 (ONFD), four-corner 80917, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 599, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17059
  • Dae Jaweon: page 990, character 26
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2011, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+6C23

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰɯds, *qʰɯds): phonetic  ‎(OC *kʰɯds) + semantic  ‎(rice) - to give rice as a gift. Later borrowed meanings of "air, flow" from . The derivative refers to the original word. Compare ().

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰi⁵¹/
Harbin /t͡ɕʰi⁵³/
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰi⁵³/
Jinan /t͡ɕʰi²¹/
Qingdao /t͡ɕʰi⁴²/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕʰi³¹²/
Xi'an /t͡ɕʰi⁴⁴/
Xining /t͡ɕʰji²¹³/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰi¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰi¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰi²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡ɕʰi³⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕʰi¹³/
Guiyang /t͡ɕʰi²¹³/
Kunming /t͡ɕʰi²¹²/
Nanjing /t͡ɕʰi⁴⁴/
Hefei /t͡sʰz̩⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰi⁴⁵/
Pingyao /t͡ɕʰi³⁵/
Hohhot /t͡ɕʰi⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕʰi³⁵/
Suzhou /t͡ɕʰi⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕʰi⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /t͡sʰz̩⁴²/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰi³²⁴/
Tunxi /t͡ɕʰi⁴²/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕʰi⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕʰi⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰi²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /hi⁵³/
Taoyuan /hi⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hei³³/
Nanning /hi³³/
Hong Kong /hei³³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰi²¹/
/kʰui²¹/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰɛi²¹²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰi³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰi²¹³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /xi³⁵/
/xui³⁵/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (29)
Final: (20)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: qì
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰɨiH/ /kʰɨiH/ /kʰiəiH/ /kʰɨjH/ /kʰiəiH/ /kʰĭəiH/ /kʰe̯iH/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (32)
Final: (20)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: xì
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/hɨiH/ /hɨiH/ /xiəiH/ /hɨjH/ /xiəiH/ /xĭəiH/ /xe̯iH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ khjɨjH › /*C.qʰəp-s/ cloudy vapors
‹ xjɨjH › /*qʰət-s/ to present food

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
10140 1 /*kʰɯds/
10143 1 /*qʰɯds/

Definitions[edit]

  1. air; gas
    天然 / 天然  ―  tiānrán  ―  natural gas
    出去 / 出去  ―  Chūqù tòu tòu!  ―  Go out to breathe fresh air!
    輪胎 / 轮胎  ―  Lúntāi lòu le.  ―  The tire is leaking gas.
  2. breath
    喘不過 / 喘不过  ―  chuǎnbùguò lái  ―  to be out of breath
    戰鬥最后 / 战斗最后  ―  Wǒ huì zhàndòu dào zuìhòu yī kǒu .  ―  I will fight to my last breath.
  3. (Chinese philosophy) qi; vital energy; life force
  4. smell; odour
    /   ―  wèi  ―  smell
    廚炊煙火衣服去掉 [MSC, trad.]
    厨炊烟火衣服去掉 [MSC, simp.]
    Bǎ chúchuī de yānhuǒ cóng yīfú shàng qùdiào shì hěn nán de. [Pinyin]
    It is difficult to remove the smell of cooking from clothes.
  5. weather
    /   ―  tiān  ―  weather
  6. to get angry
    /   ―  shēng  ―  to get angry
  7. to make angry, to annoy
    /   ―  Bié wǒ!  ―  Don't annoy me!
  8. to breathe

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

Readings[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Not used in modern Japanese. Replaced by the shinjitai form .


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(gi) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer ki, Yale ki)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(khí)

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