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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Original form of () ("to present rice as a gift"), which is from the same source as ("to endow; to make endow, to beg"). Current meaning came from phonetic loan.

Schwartz see it as an Ideogrammic compound (會意) : Steam rising from a bowl of rice . Schwartz link the rice component to the concept of Qi. The nourishing vapors of boiling rice represent the Qi, the "vital energy" which make life possible.

But this theory is imcompatible with the original meaning of the character. So the rice vapor should be seen as the etymology of () but not as the etymology of 气(氣).

References[edit]

  • 1985, Benjamin Schwartz, The World of Thought in Ancient China, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, ISBN 9780674043312:

Han character[edit]

(radical 84 +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 人弓火木 (ONFD), four-corner 80917)

  1. air, gas, steam, vapor
  2. breath, spirit

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 599, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17059
  • Dae Jaweon: page 990, character 26
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2011, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+6C23

Cantonese[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(simplified , Jyutping hei3, Yale hei3)


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Kyūjitai (simplified into in Kanji)


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(gi) (hangeul , revised gi, McCune-Reischauer ki, Yale ki)


Mandarin[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(simplified , Pinyin (qi4), Wade-Giles ch'i4)

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

(traditional, Pinyin , simplified )

  1. (Intermediate Mandarin) air; gas
  2. (Intermediate Mandarin) breath
  3. smell, odour
  4. weather
  5. vital energy, life force, (Chinese philosophy) Qi

Verb[edit]

(traditional, Pinyin , simplified )

  1. (Elementary Mandarin) to get angry
  2. to make angry, to annoy
  3. to breath

References[edit]

  • "" (in Mandarin/English), MDBG English to Chinese dictionary ( Based on CC-CEDICT ). URL accessed on 2014-02-17.

Min Nan[edit]

Hanzi[edit]

(POJ khì, khùi)


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(khí)