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U+78BA, 確
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-78BA

[U+78B9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+78BB]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 112 +10, 15 strokes, cangjie input 一口人月土 (MROBG), four-corner 14614, composition)

  1. sure, certain
  2. real, true

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 833, character 31
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24366
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1250, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2450, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+78BA

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡloːwɢ
*pqroːwɢ
*skroːwɢ, *sɡroːwɢ
*kroːwɢ
*kroːwɢ, *kroːwɢ, *kʰroːwɢ
*kroːwɢ
*kʰroːwɢ
*ɡluːwɢ
*luwɢ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰroːwɢ): semantic  + phonetic (OC *ɡluːwɢ) – rock-solid, as certain as a rock.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰyɛ⁵¹/
Harbin /t͡ɕʰyɛ⁵³/
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰye⁵³/
Jinan /t͡ɕʰyə²¹³/
Qingdao /t͡ɕʰyə⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕʰyo²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡ɕʰyo⁵³/
Xining /t͡ɕʰyu⁵³/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰye¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰyə¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰyɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡ɕʰio²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡ɕʰyo³¹/
Guiyang /t͡ɕʰio²¹/
Kunming /t͡ɕʰio³¹/
Nanjing /t͡ɕʰioʔ⁵/
Hefei /t͡ɕʰyɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰyəʔ²/
Pingyao /t͡ɕʰiʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕʰyaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕʰioʔ⁵/
/t͡ɕʰyɪʔ⁵/
Suzhou /t͡ɕʰioʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /kʰoʔ⁵/
/t͡ɕʰioʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /kʰo²¹³/
Hui Shexian /kʰɔʔ²¹/
Tunxi /kʰo⁵/
Xiang Changsha /kʰo²⁴/
Xiangtan /kʰo²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /kʰɔʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /kʰok̚¹/
Taoyuan /kʰok̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kʰɔk̚³/
Nanning /kʰɔk̚³³/
Hong Kong /kʰɔk̚³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰak̚³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰɔuʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰɔ²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰak̚²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /xɔk̚⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (29)
Final () (10)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰˠʌk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰᵚɔk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰɔk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰaɨwk̚/
Li
Rong
/kʰɔk̚/
Wang
Li
/kʰɔk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰɔk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
que
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
què
Middle
Chinese
‹ khæwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]ʰˤrawk/
English solid, firm

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 5100
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
㱿
Old
Chinese
/*kʰroːwɢ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. certain

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(hwak) (hangeul , revised hwak, McCune-Reischauer hwak, Yale hwak)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(xác, xạc)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.