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See also:
U+9DB4, 鶴
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9DB4

[U+9DB3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9DB5]
U+FA2D, 鶴
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA2D

[U+FA2C]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA2E]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 196, +10, 21 strokes, cangjie input 十土竹日火 (JGHAF) or 人土竹日火 (OGHAF), four-corner 47227, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1496, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 47185
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2026, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4654, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+9DB4

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡloːwɢ): phonetic  (OC *ɡluːwɢ) + semantic .

Etymology[edit]

Possibly from Austroasiatic (Schuessler, 2007). Compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *kl(uə)k (white), whence Proto-Vietic *t-lɔːk (white) but Old Mon kloh (crane).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • heh5 - vernacular;
  • hah5 - literary.
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • ho̍h - vernacular;
    • ho̍k - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xɤ⁵¹/
    /xɑu³⁵/
    Harbin /xau²⁴/
    /xɤ⁵³/
    Tianjin /xɑu⁴⁵/
    /xɤ⁵³/
    Jinan /xə²¹³/
    /xə²¹/
    Qingdao /xə⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /xɤ²⁴/
    Xi'an /xuo²¹/
    Xining /xɔ⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /xə¹³/
    Lanzhou /xə⁵³/
    Ürümqi /xɤ²¹³/
    Wuhan /xuo²¹³/
    Chengdu /xo³¹/
    Guiyang /xo²¹/
    Kunming /xo³¹/
    Nanjing /xoʔ⁵/
    Hefei /xɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /xəʔ²/
    Pingyao /xʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /xaʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /ŋoʔ¹/
    Suzhou /ŋoʔ³/
    Hangzhou /ŋoʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ŋo²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /xɔ²²/
    Tunxi /xo¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /xo²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ho²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /hɔʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /hok̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /hok̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔk̚²/
    Nanning /hɔk̚²²/
    Hong Kong /hɔk̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔk̚⁵/
    /hoʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /houʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔ⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hoʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hɔk̚⁵/
    /hak̚³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (103)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦɑk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦɑk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɑk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦak̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣɑk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣɑk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣɑk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hæwk › ‹ hak ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɡ]ˁrawk/ /*[ɡ]ˁawk/
    English white (of birds) crane

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 5092
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡloːwɢ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. crane (bird)
    2. white
    3. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    つる
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    (tsuru, tazu): the Japanese crane, Grus japonensis
    Commons:Category
    Wikimedia Commons has more media related to: Gruidae
    (tsuru): an origami crane
    Commons:Category
    Wikimedia Commons has more media related to: Origami crane
    (tsuru): the tsuru no maru, one of many 家紋 (kamon, family crests) in the depiction of a crane

    Given a crane's long neck and how the bird hunts, possibly related to (tsuru, vine); (tsuru, bowstring; musical instrument string); 釣る, 吊る (tsuru, to hang down; to string up; to fish). Given how cranes flock together, possibly related also to 連る (tsuru), older root form of modern verb 連れる (tsureru, to accompany). That said, 連る also appears to ultimately derive from (tsuru, vine).

    Vovin (2008) considers it possibly related to an ancestor of Korean 두루미 (durumi, crane), with a root-final -m vanishing later, leaving only a Kansai accent pattern behind.[1]

    The reading tsuru is first seen used to mean “a crane” from the late Heian period. Prior to that time, the only reading used for the bird was tazu. However, the kanji was used in the Man'yōshū (759 C.E.) as a 借訓 (shakkun) reading for つる (turu → tsuru), the 連体形 (rentaikei, attributive form) of (tu → tsu, auxiliary verb of affirmation, certainty, or completion), suggesting that tsuru may have already existed as an everyday term meaning “a crane”.[2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (つる) (tsuru

    1. a crane (large, long-legged and long-necked bird of the family Gruidae)
    2. Short for 折鶴 (orizuru): a paper crane, the archetypical origami design
    3. Short for 鶴嘴 (tsuruhashi): a pickaxe
    4. a 家紋 (kamon, family crest) depicting a crane
    5. (euphemistic) white hair
      Synonym: 白髪 (shiraga)
    6. a decoration made of straws and reeds in the form of two cranes, used during the 14th year of the first month in the former town of Sakurajima, Kagoshima Prefecture
    Usage notes[edit]

    As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as ツル.

    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]
    Proverbs[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (つる) (Tsuru

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    たず
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling 田鶴

    /tadu//tad͡zu//tazu/

    From Old Japanese.[2][3]

    Speculatively, this could be analyzed as a compound of (ta, possibly (rice paddy), where cranes are known to hunt) +‎ (*tsu, uncertain, possibly “a large bird), wherein the tsu changes to dzu, modern zu, as an instance of rendaku (連濁). This tsu may be the tsu in modern tsuru above. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (たず) (tazu (historical kana たづ)

    1. (archaic, poetic) a crane (large, long-legged and long-necked bird of the family Gruidae)
    Usage notes[edit]

    This reading is now reserved for poetry.[2][3]

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かく
    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦɑk̚).

    Compare modern Mandarin ().

    Affix[edit]

    (かく) (kaku

    1. crane (large bird of the family Gruidae)
    2. cranelike
    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ Bjarke Frellesvig and John Whitman, editors (2008) , chapter 7, in Proto-Japanese: Issues and Prospects, Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, Proto-Japanese beyond the accent system, pages 140-156
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦɑk̚). Recorded as Middle Korean 학〮 (Yale: hak) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 두루미 (durumi hak))

    1. Hanja form? of (crane (bird)).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Kunigami[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Readings[edit]


    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ちる
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with Japanese (tsuru).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ちる, rōmaji chiru)

    1. a crane (large, long-legged and long-necked bird of the family Gruidae)

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ チル” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Possibly a compound of (ta, rice paddy, where cranes are known to hunt) +‎ (*tu, uncertain, possibly “a large bird). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Noun[edit]

    (tadu) (kana たづ)

    1. a crane (large, long-legged and long-necked bird of the family Gruidae)
      • 711712, Kojiki (poem 85)
        阿麻登夫登理母都加比曾多豆賀泥能岐許延牟登岐波和賀那斗波佐泥
        ama-to2bu to2ri mo2 tukapi1 so2 tadu ga ne no2 ki1ko2yemu to2ki1 pa waga na to1pasane
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 7, poem 1199), text here
        藻苅舟奧榜來良之妹之嶋形見之浦爾翔所見
        mokari-bune oki1 ko2gi1kurasi Imogasima Katami1-no2-ura ni tadu kake2ru mi1yu
        Rowing the seaweed-gathering boat out to sea and back again, I saw the cranes soaring by Katami inlet on Imogashima.
      • For more quotations using this term, see Citations:鶴.

    Citations[edit]

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:鶴.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Japanese: (tazu)

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (hạc)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.