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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 196 +10, 21 strokes, cangjie input 十土竹日火 (JGHAF) or 人土竹日火 (OGHAF), four-corner 47227, composition)

  1. crane (bird)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1496, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 47185
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2026, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4654, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+9DB4

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Pronunciation[edit]

Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xɤ⁵¹/
/xɑu³⁵/
Harbin /xau²⁴/
/xɤ⁵³/
Tianjin /xɑu⁴⁵/
/xɤ⁵³/
Jinan /xə²¹³/
/xə²¹/
Qingdao /xə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /xɤ²⁴/
Xi'an /xuo²¹/
Xining /xɔ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /xə¹³/
Lanzhou /xə⁵³/
Ürümqi /xɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /xuo²¹³/
Chengdu /xo³¹/
Guiyang /xo²¹/
Kunming /xo³¹/
Nanjing /xoʔ⁵/
Hefei /xɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /xəʔ²/
Pingyao /xʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /xaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /ŋoʔ¹/
Suzhou /ŋoʔ³/
Hangzhou /ŋoʔ²/
Wenzhou /ŋo²¹³/
Hui Shexian /xɔ²²/
Tunxi /xo¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /xo²⁴/
Xiangtan /ho²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /hɔʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /hok̚⁵/
Taoyuan /hok̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔk̚²/
Nanning /hɔk̚²²/
Hong Kong /hɔk̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔk̚⁵/
/hoʔ⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /houʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hoʔ⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hɔk̚⁵/
/hak̚³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (33)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɦɑk̚/ /ɣɑk̚/ /ɣɑk̚/ /ɦɑk̚/ /ɦak̚/ /ɣɑk̚/ /ɣɑk̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ hæwk › /*[ɡ]ˤrawk/ white (of birds)
‹ hak › /*[ɡ]ˤawk/ crane

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
5092 3 /*ɡloːwɢ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(tazu, tsuru): the Japanese crane, Grus japonensis
Commons:Category
Wikimedia Commons has more media related to: Gruidae
(tsuru): a paper origami crane
Commons:Category
Wikimedia Commons has more media related to: Origami crane
(tsuru): a crane 家紋 ‎(kamon, family crest)
Kanji in this term
たず
Grade: S
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.[1][2] By one analysis, this may be a compound of ‎(ta, rice paddy, a common place where cranes can be found) +‎ ‎(tsu, crane? large bird?). The tsu changes to dzu, modern zu due to rendaku (連濁). This tsu is probably the tsu in tsuru (see below).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana たず, romaji tazu, historical hiragana たづ)

  1. (archaic, poetic) a crane: a large, long-legged and long-necked bird, member of the family or clade Gruidae
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 7, poem #1199); text here
      藻苅舟 奥榜来良之 妹之嶋 形見之浦尓 翔所見
      もかりふね おきこぎくらし いもがしま かたみのうらに たづかけるみゆ
      Mo kari fune / oki kogi kurashi / Imogashima / Katami no ura ni / tazu kakeru miyu
      Rowing the seaweed-gathering boat out to sea and back again, I saw the cranes soaring by Katami inlet on Imogashima
Usage notes[edit]

This reading is now reserved for poetry.[1][2]

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
つる
Grade: S
kun'yomi

Given a crane's long neck and how the bird hunts, possibly related to ‎(tsuru, vine); ‎(tsuru, bowstring; musical instrument string); 釣る, 吊る ‎(tsuru, to hang down; to string up; to fish). Given how cranes flock together, possibly related also to 連る ‎(tsuru), older root form of modern verb 連れる ‎(tsureru, to accompany). That said, 連る also appears to ultimately derive from ‎(tsuru, vine).

Likely Altaic cognates include Proto-Turkic *durunja ‎(crane) (whence Turkish turna), Korean 두루미 (durumi, “crane”), Mongolian тогоруу ‎(togoruu, crane)). Compare also Hungarian daru ‎(crane).

The reading tsuru is first seen used to mean a crane ‎(the bird) from the late Heian period. Prior to that time, the only reading used for the bird was tazu. However, the kanji was used in the Man'yōshū as a phonetic ateji for the verb ending -tsuru, suggesting that tsuru may have already existed as an everyday term meaning a crane.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana つる, katakana ツル, romaji tsuru)

  1. a crane: a large, long-legged and long-necked bird, member of the family or clade Gruidae
  2. short for 折鶴 (​orizuru): a paper crane, the archetypical origami design
  3. short for 鶴嘴 (​tsuruhashi): a pickaxe
  4. a 家紋 ‎(kamon, family crest) depicting a crane
  5. (euphemistic) white hair
Usage notes[edit]

As with many words that name organisms, this word is often written in katakana when used in biology contexts.

Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun'yomi

Old Japanese. Only found in compounds. Uncertain derivation. May be a truncation of tsuru, or an ancient form of its own. Not used in modern Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji tsu)

  1. (obsolete) a crane: a large, long-legged and long-necked bird, member of the family or clade Gruidae
Derived terms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

Appears as (zu) in compounds due to rendaku.

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
かく
Grade: S
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(hak). Compare modern simplified Mandarin ‎(). Only found in compounds.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana かく, romaji kaku)

  1. a crane: a large, long-legged and long-necked bird, member of the family or clade Gruidae
Derived terms[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(hak) (hangeul , revised hak, McCune-Reischauer hak, Yale hak)

  1. 두루미 (durumi) crane

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hạc)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.