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See also:
U+9DB4, 鶴
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9DB4

[U+9DB3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9DB5]
U+FA2D, 鶴
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA2D

[U+FA2C]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA2E]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 196 +10, 21 strokes, cangjie input 十土竹日火 (JGHAF) or 人土竹日火 (OGHAF), four-corner 47227, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1496, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 47185
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2026, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4654, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+9DB4

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡloːwɢ
*pqroːwɢ
*skroːwɢ, *sɡroːwɢ
*kroːwɢ
*kroːwɢ, *kroːwɢ, *kʰroːwɢ
*kroːwɢ
*kʰroːwɢ
*ɡluːwɢ
*luwɢ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡloːwɢ): phonetic  (OC *ɡluːwɢ) + semantic .

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • heh5 - vernacular;
  • hah5 - literary.
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • ho̍h - vernacular;
    • ho̍k - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xɤ⁵¹/
    /xɑu³⁵/
    Harbin /xau²⁴/
    /xɤ⁵³/
    Tianjin /xɑu⁴⁵/
    /xɤ⁵³/
    Jinan /xə²¹³/
    /xə²¹/
    Qingdao /xə⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /xɤ²⁴/
    Xi'an /xuo²¹/
    Xining /xɔ⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /xə¹³/
    Lanzhou /xə⁵³/
    Ürümqi /xɤ²¹³/
    Wuhan /xuo²¹³/
    Chengdu /xo³¹/
    Guiyang /xo²¹/
    Kunming /xo³¹/
    Nanjing /xoʔ⁵/
    Hefei /xɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /xəʔ²/
    Pingyao /xʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /xaʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /ŋoʔ¹/
    Suzhou /ŋoʔ³/
    Hangzhou /ŋoʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ŋo²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /xɔ²²/
    Tunxi /xo¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /xo²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ho²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /hɔʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /hok̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /hok̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔk̚²/
    Nanning /hɔk̚²²/
    Hong Kong /hɔk̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔk̚⁵/
    /hoʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /houʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔ⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hoʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hɔk̚⁵/
    /hak̚³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (103)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦɑk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦɑk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɑk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦak̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣɑk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣɑk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣɑk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hæwk › ‹ hak ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɡ]ˤrawk/ /*[ɡ]ˤawk/
    English white (of birds) crane

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 5092
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡloːwɢ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. crane (bird)
    2. white
    3. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    (tazu, tsuru): the Japanese crane, Grus japonensis
    Commons:Category
    Wikimedia Commons has more media related to: Gruidae
    (tsuru): a paper origami crane
    Commons:Category
    Wikimedia Commons has more media related to: Origami crane
    (tsuru): a crane 家紋 (kamon, family crest)
    Kanji in this term
    たず
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.[1][2] By one analysis, this may be a compound of (ta, rice paddy, a common place where cranes can be found) +‎ (tsu, crane? large bird?). The tsu changes to dzu, modern zu as an instance of rendaku (連濁). This tsu is probably the tsu in tsuru (see below).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana たず, rōmaji tazu, historical hiragana たづ)

    1. (archaic, poetic) a crane: a large, long-legged and long-necked bird, member of the family or clade Gruidae
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 7, poem 1199); text here
        藻苅舟 奥榜来良之 妹之嶋 形見之浦尓 翔所見
        もかりふね おきこぎくらし いもがしま かたみのうらに たづかけるみゆ
        Mo kari fune / oki kogi kurashi / Imogashima / Katami no ura ni / tazu kakeru miyu
        Rowing the seaweed-gathering boat out to sea and back again, I saw the cranes soaring by Katami inlet on Imogashima
    Usage notes[edit]

    This reading is now reserved for poetry.[1][2]

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    つる
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja

    Given a crane's long neck and how the bird hunts, possibly related to (tsuru, vine); (tsuru, bowstring; musical instrument string); 釣る, 吊る (tsuru, to hang down; to string up; to fish). Given how cranes flock together, possibly related also to 連る (tsuru), older root form of modern verb 連れる (tsureru, to accompany). That said, 連る also appears to ultimately derive from (tsuru, vine).

    Vovin (2008) considers it possibly related to an ancestor of Korean 두루미 (durumi, crane), with a root-final -m vanishing later, leaving only a Kansai accent pattern behind.[3]

    The reading tsuru is first seen used to mean a crane (the bird) from the late Heian period. Prior to that time, the only reading used for the bird was tazu. However, the kanji was used in the Man'yōshū as a phonetic ateji for the verb ending -tsuru, suggesting that tsuru may have already existed as an everyday term meaning a crane.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana つる, katakana ツル, rōmaji tsuru)

    1. a crane: a large, long-legged and long-necked bird, member of the family or clade Gruidae
    2. short for 折鶴 (​orizuru): a paper crane, the archetypical origami design
    3. short for 鶴嘴 (​tsuruhashi): a pickaxe
    4. a 家紋 (kamon, family crest) depicting a crane
    5. (euphemistic) white hair
    Usage notes[edit]

    As with many words that name organisms, this word is often written in katakana when used in biology contexts.

    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]
    Synonyms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Old Japanese. Only found in compounds. Uncertain derivation. May be a truncation of tsuru, or an ancient form of its own. Not used in modern Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji tsu)

    1. (obsolete) a crane: a large, long-legged and long-necked bird, member of the family or clade Gruidae
    Derived terms[edit]
    Usage notes[edit]

    Appears as (zu) in compounds due to rendaku.

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かく
    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (hak). Compare modern Mandarin (). Only found in compounds.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana かく, rōmaji kaku)

    1. a crane: a large, long-legged and long-necked bird, member of the family or clade Gruidae
    Derived terms[edit]

    Further reading[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ Bjarke Frellesvig and John Whitman, editors (2008), chapter 7, in Proto-Japanese: Issues and Prospects, Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, Proto-Japanese beyond the accent system, pages 140-156
    4. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (hak) (hangeul , revised hak, McCune-Reischauer hak, Yale hak)

    1. 두루미 (durumi) crane

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (hạc)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.