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See also:
U+77F3, 石
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-77F3

[U+77F2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+77F4]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes
Stroke order
石-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 112, +0, 5 strokes, cangjie input 一口 (MR), four-corner 10600, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #112, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 827, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24024
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1239, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2416, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+77F3

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
石-oracle.svg 石-bronze.svg 石-silk.svg 石-seal.svg 石-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形): a stone beneath a cliff (). The cliff was subsequently distorted into .

Alternatively, a cave set into the side of a cliff or mountain.

Etymology 1[edit]

Etymology not certain. Probably related to Proto-Vietic *l-taːʔ (stone) and Khmer ដា (daa, rock; stone) (Schuessler, 2007), to which Chinese would have added the familiar final -k.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • siŏh - vernacular;
  • sĭk - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chio̍h - vernacular;
    • siā/sia̍h - vernacular (limited, e.g. 石榴, 石硯, 石石 (siā-chio̍h));
    • se̍k/si̍t/sia̍k - literary.
    • (Teochew)
      • Peng'im: ziêh8 / zioh8 / sig8 / sêg8 / siêh8 / sioh8
      • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: tsie̍h / tsio̍h / si̍k / se̍k / sie̍h / sio̍h
      • Sinological IPA (key): /t͡sieʔ⁴/, /t͡sioʔ⁴/, /sik̚⁴/, /sek̚⁴/, /sieʔ⁴/, /sioʔ⁴/
    Note:
    • ziêh8 - vernacular (Chaozhou);
    • zioh8 - vernacular (Shantou, Jieyang, Chaoyang);
    • sig8 - literary (Chaozhou);
    • sêg8 - literary (Jieyang);
    • siêh8 - only in 石榴 (Chaozhou);
    • sioh8 - only in 石榴 (Shantou, Jieyang, Chaoyang).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
    Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
    Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Xining /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
    Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
    Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
    Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
    Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
    Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
    Nanjing /ʂʐ̩ʔ⁵/
    Hefei /ʂəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /səʔ⁵⁴/
    Pingyao /ʂʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /səʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
    Suzhou /zɑʔ³/
    Hangzhou /zɑʔ²/
    Wenzhou /zei²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ɕi²²/
    Tunxi /ɕi¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ʂɒ⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /sɑʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /sak̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /ʃɑk̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sɛk̚²/
    Nanning /sɛk̚²²/
    Hong Kong /sɛk̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sik̚⁵/
    /t͡sioʔ⁵/
    /sia²²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /suoʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡siɔ⁴⁴/
    /si⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sioʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sek̚⁵/
    /t͡sio³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (123)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑiᴇk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑiɛk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑiæk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑiajk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiɛk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭɛk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯ɛk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shí
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shí
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyek ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*dAk/
    English stone

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11470
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djaɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. stone; rock
    2. A surname​.
      /   ―  Shí Yáng  ―  Shih Yang (a pirate leader who terrorized the China Seas during the early 19th century)

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (せき) (seki)
    • Korean: (, seok)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From (dàn) (Qiu, 1988).

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. a unit of dry measure for grain (equal to 100 liters)

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いし
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨isi⟩ → */ɨsi//iɕi/

    From Old Japanese.[1]

    Likely cognate with (iso, pebble; gravel; rocky beach).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (いし) (ishi

    1. a stone
      • 1999 March 27, “ストーン・アルマジラー [Stone Armadiller]”, in Vol.2, Konami:
        (からだ)(いし)のように(かた)()(おお)われており、(まも)りがかたい。
        Karada ga ishi no yō ni katai ke de ōwareteori, mamori ga katai.
        With a body covered in a coat as hard as stones, its defense is solid.
    2. (slang, electronics) a transistor
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    こく
    Grade: 1
    kan’yōon

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦuk̚).

    The spelling came about through customary use in Japan of this character for the unit of measure.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (こく) (koku

    1. a traditional Japanese unit of volume:
      1. for grains of rice; one koku is equal to approximately 180 litres
      2. (by extension, historical) for land of famous daimyo or samurai; one koku is also approximately 180 litres
      3. for 和船 (wasen); one koku is equal to 10 cubic shaku or approximately 0.278 cubic metres
    2. a unit of quantity for (sake, salmon) and (masu, trout); one koku is equal to 40 salmons or 60 trouts
    Derived terms[edit]
    Descendants[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    せき
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC d͡ʑiᴇk̚).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Counter[edit]

    (せき) (-seki

    1. counter for gemstones used as bearings in watches and other devices
    2. (slang, electronics) counter for transistors, especially discrete ones
      (ろく)(せき)ラジオ
      rokuseki rajio
      six-transistor radio

    Noun[edit]

    (せき) (seki

    1. Same as こく (koku) above

    Affix[edit]

    (せき) (seki

    1. stone
    2. needle made of stone
    3. go stone
    4. something solid but worthless
    5. Short for 石見 (Iwami-no-kuni): Iwami Province

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (dol seok))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Kunigami[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (ishi).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana しー, romaji shī)

    1. stone

    Miyako[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (ishi).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana いす, romaji isu)

    1. stone

    References[edit]

    • イス” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Miyako Dialect Dictionary.
    • いす” in Celik Kenan Thibault, Online Miyako Dictionary, 2016.

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (ishi).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana いし, romaji ishi)

    1. stone

    References[edit]

    • イシ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with (iso1, pebble; gravel; rocky beach).

    Noun[edit]

    (isi) (kana いし)

    1. a stone
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 869), text here
        多良志比賣可尾能美許等能奈都良須等美多多志世利斯伊志遠多礼美吉
        tarasi pi1me1 kami2 no2 mi1ko2to2 no2 na turasu to2 mi1-tatasi serisi isi wo tare miki1
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
        [Note: Another version replaces na turasu to2 with 阿由都流等 (ayu turu to2, catching sweetfishes)

    Derived terms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Japanese: (ishi)

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: thạch[1][2][3], đán[3]
    : Nôm readings: thạch[1][2], sạch[1]

    1. Hán tự form of thạch (stone).

    References[edit]


    Yaeyama[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (ishi).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana いしぃ, romaji isï)

    1. stone

    Yonaguni[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (ishi).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana いち, romaji ichi)

    1. stone

    References[edit]

    • いち【石】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.