石榴

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Chinese[edit]

rock; stone; 10 pecks pomegranate
simp. and trad.
(石榴)
alt. forms 石留

Etymology[edit]

Abbreviation of 安石榴 (ānshíliú), see there for more.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (25) (37)
Final () (123) (136)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑiᴇk̚/ /lɨu/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑiɛk̚/ /liu/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑiæk̚/ /liəu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑiajk̚/ /luw/
Li
Rong
/ʑiɛk̚/ /liu/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭɛk̚/ /lĭəu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi̯ɛk̚/ /li̯ə̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shí liú
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shí
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyek ›
Old
Chinese
/*dAk/
English stone

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 11470 8886
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*djaɡ/ /*m·ru/

Noun[edit]

石榴

  1. pomegranate

Derived terms[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
石榴 (zakuro, jakuro, sekiryū): young pomegranate trees.
石榴 (zakuro, jakuro, sekiryū): an opened pomegranate fruit.

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
じゃく > ざく
Grade: 1
る > ろ
Hyōgaiji
Irregular

From Middle Chinese 石榴 (/d͡ʑiᴇk̚ lɨu/ obsolete or nonstandard characters (ᴇ), invalid IPA characters (ᴇ), literally stone + pomegranate). Compare modern Wu reading zaq lieu, Hakka sa̍k-liù.

The reading is irregular. This may represent a shift in pronunciation from an older borrowing: compare the expected goon reading jakuru. Alternatively, this reading may reflect an ancient sound borrowing, indicating the Zagros Mountains of modern-day Iran, where the pomegranate was originally cultivated.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

石榴 (hiragana ざくろ, katakana ザクロ, rōmaji zakuro)

  1. pomegranate
Usage notes[edit]

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana in biological contexts, as ザクロ.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
じゃく
Grade: 1
る > ろ
Hyōgaiji
Irregular

From Middle Chinese 石榴 (/d͡ʑiᴇk̚ lɨu/ obsolete or nonstandard characters (ᴇ), invalid IPA characters (ᴇ), literally stone + pomegranate). Uses the regular goon reading of jaku for the first character, and the irregular ro reading for the second character instead of the expected goon reading of ru.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)
  • IPA(key): [d͡ʑa̠kɯᵝɺ̠o̞]

Noun[edit]

石榴 (hiragana じゃくろ, rōmaji jakuro)

  1. (しゃくろ', obsolete) pomegranate
Usage notes[edit]

This reading appears to be obsolete.

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
せき
Grade: 1
りゅう
Hyōgaiji
on'yomi

/sekiriu//sekirjuː/

From Middle Chinese 石榴 (/d͡ʑiᴇk̚ lɨu/ obsolete or nonstandard characters (ᴇ), invalid IPA characters (ᴇ), literally stone + pomegranate). Uses the regular kanon reading of both characters.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

石榴 (hiragana せきりゅう, rōmaji sekiryū, historical hiragana せきりう)

  1. (uncommon) pomegranate
Usage notes[edit]

The zakuro reading above is the most common reading for this term.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 清水桂一 (Keiichi Shimizu), editor (1980) たべもの語源辞典 (Tabemono Gogen Jiten, “Etymological Dictionary of Foods”)[1] (in Japanese), 東京堂出版 (Tōkyō-dō Shuppan, “Tokyo Hall Publishing”), ISBN 4-490-10128-7
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Noun[edit]

石榴 (seongnyu) (hangeul 석류)

  1. Hanja form? of 석류, “pomegranate”.

Okinawan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Attested in the 沖縄語典 (Okinawa Goten, “Okinawan Dictionary”) as ざぐら (zagura).[1] Appears to be cognate with mainland Japanese 石榴 (zakuro); see that entry for further details.

Noun[edit]

石榴 (hiragana ざくら, romaji zakura)

  1. pomegranate

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1896: 沖縄語典 (Okinawa Goten, “Okinawan Dictionary”). In Japanese. http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/992016/43
  • 沖縄語辞典 (Okinawago Jiten, “Okinawan Dictionary”)[2], 1963

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this word

Noun[edit]

石榴

  1. Hán tự form of thạch lựu, “pomegranate