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See also: , , , , , and
U+5CA9, 岩
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5CA9

[U+5CA8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5CAA]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 46, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 山一口 (UMR), four-corner 22601, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 309, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7985
  • Dae Jaweon: page 609, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 766, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+5CA9

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms


Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
岩-seal.svg 岩-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (hill) +  (rock).

Originally written as phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋraːm): semantic  (hill) + phonetic  (OC *ŋam). The variant form first appeared in the clerical script in Han dynasty.

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate with (OC *ŋam, “majestic; stern; grave”) and (OC *ŋamʔ, “dignified; majestic”). See for more.

(ái, “cancer”) is a derivative of .

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (149)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠam/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋᵚam/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋam/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋaɨm/
Li
Rong
/ŋam/
Wang
Li
/ŋam/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋam/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yán
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yán
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngæm ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ]ˁr[a]m/ (< uvular?)
English rocky, lofty

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3684
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋraːm/

Definitions[edit]

  1. cliff
  2. rock, stone
  3. mountain peak
  4. cave
  5. tall

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“dangerous and important; cliff, precipice; etc.”).
(This character, , is the simplified and variant form of .)
Notes:

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
いわ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

/ipa//ifa//iwa/

From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū finished some time after 759 CE.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(いわ) (iwa (historical kana いは)

  1. rock
    • 1999 July 22, “(がん)(くつ)()(じん)オーガ・ロック [Cave Jinn Ogre Rock]”, in Vol.4, Konami:
      (からだ)(いわ)のため(しゅ)()(たか)い。(ふと)(うで)のひと()りに(ちゅう)()
      Karada ga iwa no tame shubi wa takai. Futoi ude no hitofuri ni chūi.
      Its defense is strong thanks to its rock body. Watch out for a swing of its massive arms.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
がん
Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠam).

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(がん) (gan

  1. rock

References[edit]

  1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 15, poem 3590), text here
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(am) (hangeul )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nham, nhàm, nhem)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.