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U+5546, 商
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5546

[U+5545]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5547]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
商-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 30, +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 卜金月口 (YCBR), four-corner 00227, composition ⿱⿱)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 194, character 32
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3803
  • Dae Jaweon: page 415, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 288, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5546

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
商-oracle.svg 商-bronze.svg 商-silk.svg 商-seal.svg 商-bigseal.svg

Etymology[edit]

Traditionally it is considered that 商人 (shāngrén) is so named because this term originally refers to people from Shang dynasty, who tend to do business.

Schuessler (2007) lists two possible origins:

  1. (OC *hljaː), which may be related to Thai แลก (lɛ̂ɛk), plus terminative suffix *;
  2. connected with Proto-Tibeto-Burman *lay (change, exchange) or Proto-Tibeto-Burman *b-ley (barter).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (26)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɕɨɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɕiɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɕiɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɕɨaŋ/
Li
Rong
/ɕiaŋ/
Wang
Li
/ɕĭaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɕi̯aŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shāng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
soeng1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shāng shāng shāng
Middle
Chinese
‹ syang › ‹ syang › ‹ syang ›
Old
Chinese
/*s-taŋ/ /*s-taŋ/ /*s-taŋ/
English musical note (place name) estimate; business; trader

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11097
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hljaŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. trade; commerce; business
  2. businessman; dealer
  3. (mathematics) quotient
    623  ―  6 chú 2 de shāng shì 3  ―  the quotient of 6 divided by 2 is 3
  4. (music) the second note in the Chinese pentatonic scale
  5. (~朝) Shang Dynasty
  6. to discuss; to consult

Coordinate terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Dynasties (朝代) in Chinese history
Name Time period Divisions
Xia
(~朝, ~代)
2070 – 1600 B.C.E.
Shang
(~朝, ~代)
(~朝, ~代)
1600 – 1046 B.C.E.
Zhou
(~朝, ~代)
1046 – 256 B.C.E. Western Zhou
西周
Eastern Zhou
東周东周
Spring and Autumn period
春秋
Warring States period
戰國战国
Qin
(~朝, ~代)
221 – 206 B.C.E.
Han
(~朝, ~代)
206 B.C.E. – 220 C.E. Western Han
西漢西汉
Xin
(~朝)
Eastern Han
東漢东汉
Three Kingdoms
三國三国
220 – 280 C.E. Wei
Shu
Wu
Jin
(~朝, ~代)
265 – 420 C.E. Western Jin
西晉西晋
Eastern Jin
東晉东晋
Southern and Northern dynasties
南北朝
420 – 589 C.E. Northern dynasties
北朝
Northern Wei
北魏
Western Wei
西魏
Eastern Wei
東魏东魏
Northern Zhou
北周
Northern Qi
北齊北齐
Southern dynasties
南朝
Liu Song
劉宋刘宋
Southern Qi
南齊南齐
Liang
(~朝, ~代)
Chen
(~朝, ~代)
Sui
(~朝, ~代)
581 – 618 C.E.
Tang
(~朝, ~代)
618 – 907 C.E.
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
五代十國五代十国
907 – 960 C.E.
Liao
(~朝, ~代)
907 – 1125 C.E.
Song
(~朝, ~代)
960 – 1279 C.E. Northern Song
北宋
Southern Song
南宋
Western Xia
西夏
1038 – 1227 C.E.
Jin
(~朝, ~代)
1115 – 1234 C.E.
Western Liao
西遼西辽
1124 – 1218 C.E.
Yuan
(~朝, ~代)
1271 – 1368 C.E.
Ming
(~朝, ~代)
1368 – 1644 C.E.
Qing
(~朝, ~代)
1636 – 1912 C.E.

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
しょう
Grade: 3
on’yomi

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (syang, commerce).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(しょう) (shōしやう (syau)?

  1. dealing, dealer, merchant
  2. (arithmetic) quotient

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC ɕɨɐŋ). Recorded as Middle Korean 샤ᇰ (Yale: syang) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 장사 (jangsa sang))

  1. Hanja form? of (trade; commerce).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: thương

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.