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See also:
U+8FB2, 農
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8FB2

[U+8FB1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8FB3]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 161, +6, 13 strokes, cangjie input 廿田一一女 (TWMMV), four-corner 55232, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1252, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38688
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1733, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3607, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+8FB2

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
農-oracle.svg 農-bronze.svg 農-seal.svg 農-bigseal.svg

In current form Ideogrammic compound (會意):  +  (field). Top unrelated to , and previously two hands, one on either side of a bundle – a farmer bringing goods to market, from the field .

Etymology[edit]

Probably Sino-Tibetan. Cognate with (OC *noːɡs, *nuːɡ, “hoe, rake; to weed”), possibly derived from it with the terminative suffix *-ŋ for action with a goal, i.e. "to get a field hoed" > "cultivated"; compare (OC *maŋ, “to disappear”) from (OC *ma, “(there is) no”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Huang (2000), Norman (1983) and Zhou (1986) hypothesised that this is the same etymon as (OC *nuːŋ, “person, I, me”). See there for more.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • lâng - vernacular;
  • lông - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /nuŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /nəŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /nu⁴⁵/
    /nuŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /nuŋ⁴²/
    /nu⁴²/
    Qingdao /nu⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /nuŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /luŋ²⁴/
    Xining /luə̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /nuŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /lũn⁵³/
    Ürümqi /luŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /noŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /noŋ³¹/
    Guiyang /noŋ²¹/
    Kunming /noŋ³¹/
    Nanjing /loŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /ləŋ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /nəŋ¹¹/
    /nuəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /nəŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /nə̃ŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /noŋ²³/
    Suzhou /noŋ¹³/
    Hangzhou /noŋ²¹³/
    /ȵioŋ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /noŋ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /lʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /lin¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /loŋ¹³/
    Xiangtan /nən¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /luŋ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /nuŋ¹¹/
    Taoyuan /nuŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /noŋ²¹/
    Nanning /nuŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /nuŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lɔŋ³⁵/
    /laŋ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nuŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nɔŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /loŋ⁵⁵/
    /naŋ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /noŋ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (5)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nuoŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nuoŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /noŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nawŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /noŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /nuoŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /nuoŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    nóng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    nóng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nowng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nˁ[o]ŋ/
    English agriculture; to farm

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9571
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nuːŋ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to cultivate; to farm
    2. land cultivation; farming; agriculture
    3. farmer; grower
    4. (Catholicism) Nun
    5. (surname)

    Synonyms[edit]

    • (farmer):
    edit
    • (Nun): (Protestantism) (nèn)

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. agriculture, farming

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    Kanji in this term
    のう
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (nowng, agriculture, farming).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (のう) (

    1. agriculture, farming
    2. a farmer

    Usage notes[edit]

    For the farmer sense, the terms 農家 (nōka) or 農夫 (nōfu, male farmer) or 農婦 (nōfu, female farmer) may be used more often.

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC nuoŋ). Compare modern Mandarin (nóng).

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 농사 (nongsa nong))

    1. Hanja form? of (agriculture).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (nông, nong, nôn, núng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.