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U+6881, 梁
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6881

[U+6880]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6882]
U+F97A, 梁
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F97A

[U+F979]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F97B]

Translingual

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Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 75, +7, 11 strokes, cangjie input 水金木 (ECD) or 水戈木 (EID), four-corner 33904, composition ⿱⿰)

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 528, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14825
  • Dae Jaweon: page 916, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1220, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+6881

Chinese

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trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
𣸑
渿
𣹷
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *raŋ) : semantic (water) + phonetic (OC *sʰraŋ) + semantic (wood) — a bridge.

Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Are the noun senses related to the proper noun senses?”)

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • niû/niô͘ - vernacular (incl. surname);
  • liông/liâng - literary.
Note:
  • nion5, niên5 - vernacular, incl. surname (niên5 - Chaozhou);
  • liang5 - literary.
    • (Leizhou)
      • Leizhou Pinyin: liang5 / lio5
      • Sinological IPA: /liaŋ²²/, /liɔ²²/
Note:
  • liang5 - literary;
  • lio5 - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter ljang
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɨɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/liɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/liɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lɨaŋ/
Li
Rong
/liaŋ/
Wang
Li
/lĭaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯aŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
liáng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
loeng4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
liáng
Middle
Chinese
‹ ljang ›
Old
Chinese
/*raŋ/
English beam; bridge

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 1648
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*raŋ/

Definitions

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  1. Alternative form of (liáng, bridge; roof beam; ridge); also the simplified form.
  2. (historical) state of Liang
    1. An ancient Chinese state during the Spring and Autumn period
    2. The State of Wei during the Warring States period, after moving its capital to Daliang
    3. A kingdom during the Han dynasty
    4. One of two ancient Chinese states during the end of the Sui dynasty
  3. (historical) Liang dynasty
    1. Liang, one of the Southern Dynasties
    2. Later Liang of the Five Dynasties
  4. a surname
      ―  Liáng Shānbó  ―  Liang Shanbo (in the legend of Butterfly Lovers)
      ―  Liáng Qǐchāo  ―  Liang Qichao (Chinese intellectual and politician who lived during the late Qing dynasty and the early Republic of China)

Synonyms

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See also

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Dynasties (朝代) in Chinese history
Name Time period Divisions
Xia
(~朝, ~代)
2070 – 1600 BCE
Shang
(~朝, ~代)
(~朝, ~代)
1600 – 1046 BCE
Zhou
(~朝, ~代)
1046 – 256 BCE Western Zhou
西周
Eastern Zhou
東周东周
Spring and Autumn period
春秋
Warring States period
戰國战国
Qin
(~朝, ~代)
221 – 206 BCE
Han
(~朝, ~代)
206 BCE – 220 C.E. Western Han
西漢西汉
Xin
(~朝)
Eastern Han
東漢东汉
Three Kingdoms
三國三国
220 – 280 C.E. Wei
Shu Han
蜀漢蜀汉
Wu
Jin
(~朝, ~代)
265 – 420 C.E. Western Jin
西晉西晋
Eastern Jin
東晉东晋
Southern and Northern dynasties
南北朝
420 – 589 C.E. Northern dynasties
北朝
Northern Wei
北魏
Western Wei
西魏
Eastern Wei
東魏东魏
Northern Zhou
北周
Northern Qi
北齊北齐
Southern dynasties
南朝
Liu Song
劉宋刘宋
Southern Qi
南齊南齐
Liang
(~朝, ~代)
Chen
(~朝, ~代)
Sui
(~朝, ~代)
581 – 618 C.E.
Tang
(~朝, ~代)
618 – 907 C.E.
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
五代十國五代十国
907 – 960 C.E.
Liao
(~朝, ~代)
907 – 1125 C.E.
Song
(~朝, ~代)
960 – 1279 C.E. Northern Song
北宋
Southern Song
南宋
Western Xia
西夏
1038 – 1227 C.E.
Jin
(~朝, ~代)
1115 – 1234 C.E.
Western Liao
西遼西辽
1124 – 1218 C.E.
Yuan
(~朝, ~代)
1271 – 1368 C.E.
Ming
(~朝, ~代)
1368 – 1644 C.E.
Qing
(~朝, ~代)
1636 – 1912 C.E.

Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Korean: 양(梁) (Yang)
  • Vietnamese: Lương ()

Others:

Compounds

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Japanese

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Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

Kanji

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(Jinmeiyō kanji)

Readings

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
うつばり
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese (utupari); attested phonetically in Old Japanese in the Shin'yaku Kegonkyō Ongi Shiki of 794, with the spelling 宇都波利.[1][2]

Likely a compound of (utsu-, inside, bound form) +‎ 張り (hari, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of 張る (haru, to stick; to spread)), as suggested by various works.[2]

Alternatively, the initial utsu- is connected to utsu-, spelled variously in addition to (inside) as (all of which is contained in a group), , (an inner hollow or empty space; an inner void), which are likely cognates.[2]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(うつばり) (utsubari

  1. a beam
  2. (figuratively) the central figure or person, a pillar

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
はり
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

Attested in the Muromachi period.[5]

The late attestation in Middle Japanese suggests that this might have been an abbreviation of (utsubari), also pronounced utsuhari in older texts.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(はり) (hari

  1. beam, joist

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
やな
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi
Alternative spelling

From Old Japanese (yana). Attested in the Nihon Shoki of 720.[6][7]

There are various theories, such as a derivation from 屋魚 (ya na, house of a fish), やる魚 (yaru na, a fish to be done), an abbreviation of 梁簀 (yanasu), and a shift from 板庭 (itaniwa).[7]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(やな) (yana

  1. fish trap, fish weir

Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
りょう
Jinmeiyō
kan'on

From Middle Chinese (MC ljang).

Pronunciation

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Proper noun

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(りょう) (Ryō

  1. (historical) Liang

References

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  1. ^ Omodaka, Hisataka (1967) 時代別国語大辞典 上代編 [The dictionary of historical Japanese: Old Japanese] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN, page 124
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 うつ‐ばり 【梁】”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten) Paid subscription required[1] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, released online 2007, →ISBN, concise edition entry available here (Note: Dialectal meanings, etymological theories, pronunciation including modern, dialectal, and historical information, Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai, historical dictionaries containing this word, and the kanji spellings in those dictionaries have been omitted.)
    The 語源説 (gogensetsu, etymological theory) section gives the following theories:
    1. ウチバリ(内張)の転〔名語記・桑家漢語抄所引秘授抄・和句解・日本釈名・東雅・万葉集類林・家屋雑考・大言海〕。
    2. ウツハリ(全張)の義〔名言通・和訓栞〕。
    3. ウツハリ(空張)の義〔言元梯〕。ウツハリギ(空張木)の下略〔日本語原学=林甕臣〕。
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 はり 【梁】”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten) Paid subscription required[2] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, released online 2007, →ISBN, concise edition entry available here (Note: Dialectal meanings, etymological theories, pronunciation including modern, dialectal, and historical information, Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai, historical dictionaries containing this word, and the kanji spellings in those dictionaries have been omitted.)
  6. ^ Omodaka, Hisataka (1967) 時代別国語大辞典 上代編 [The dictionary of historical Japanese: Old Japanese] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN, page 764
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 やな 【梁・簗】”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten) Paid subscription required[3] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, released online 2007, →ISBN, concise edition entry available here (Note: Dialectal meanings, etymological theories, pronunciation including modern, dialectal, and historical information, Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai, historical dictionaries containing this word, and the kanji spellings in those dictionaries have been omitted.)
    The 語源説 (gogensetsu, etymological theory) section gives the following theories:
    1. ヤナ(屋魚)の義〔名言通・和訓栞・大言海〕。
    2. 魚がもれないようにするところからヤルナの義か〔和句解〕。
    3. ヤナス(梁簀)の略〔国語の語根とその分類=大島正健〕。
    4. イタニハ(板庭)の反〔名語記〕。
  8. ^ りょう[リャウ] 【梁】”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten) Paid subscription required[4] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, released online 2007, →ISBN, concise edition entry available here (Note: Dialectal meanings, etymological theories, pronunciation including modern, dialectal, and historical information, Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai, historical dictionaries containing this word, and the kanji spellings in those dictionaries have been omitted.)

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC ljang). Recorded as Middle Korean 랴ᇰ (lyang) (Yale: lyang) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 들보 (deulbo ryang), word-initial (South Korea) 들보 (deulbo yang))

  1. hanja form? of / (beam; bridge)

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [5]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: lương

  1. Chữ Hán form of Lương (a surname from Chinese.).