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See also:
U+964D, 降
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-964D

[U+964C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+964E]
U+FA09, 降
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA09

[U+FA08]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA0A]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 170, +6 in Chinese, 阜+7 in Japanese, 9 strokes in Chinese in traditional Chinese, 8 strokes in mainland China, 10 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 弓中竹水手 (NLHEQ), four-corner 77254, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1349, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41620
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1852, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4126, character 18
  • Unihan data for U+964D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
𨹓
𡲣
𡲛
𫱔 (kiung) Hakka

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kruːŋs, *ɡruːŋ): semantic  (hill, wall) + phonetic  (OC *ɡruːŋ, to descend) – descending a hill.

Pronunciation 1[edit]

Etymology[edit]


Note:
  • kiung - only in the sense “to give birth”;
  • kong - all other senses.
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (9)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠʌŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kᵚɔŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kɔŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kaɨwŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kɔŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kɔŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kɔŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jiàng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jiàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kæwngH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kˁruŋ-s/ (? < *-[u]m-s)
    English descend

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 6279
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kruːŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to fall; to drop; to descend; to come down
        ―  jiàngluò  ―  to fall; to land
    2. (honorific) to visit; to honor with one's presence
    3. to bestow; to confer
    4. to reduce; to decrease; to lower
      /   ―  jiàngjià  ―  to reduce the price
    5. (music) flat ()
      A大調 / A大调  ―  jiàng'ēidàdiào  ―  A-flat major
    6. to be born
    7. (Hakka) to give birth
    8. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (9)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦˠʌŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦᵚɔŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɔŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦaɨwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣɔŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣɔŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣɔŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xiáng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xiáng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hæwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-kˁru[ŋ]/ (? < *-[u]m)
    English submit

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 6281
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡruːŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to surrender; to capitulate; to give in
        ―  tóuxiáng  ―  to surrender
    2. to subdue; to vanquish

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. to descend
    2. to fall
    3. to precipitate
    4. to surrender

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC kˠʌŋH).

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 내릴 (naeril gang))

    1. Hanja form? of (to come down; to descend).
    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦˠʌŋ).

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 항복할 (hangbokhal hang))

    1. Hanja form? of (to surrender).
    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: giáng[1][2][3][4][5], hàng ((hồ)(giang)(thiết))[1][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: hàng[1][2][6][4][7], giáng[2][4][7], dán[1][2], nháng[3], giuống[6]

    1. Hán tự form of giáng (to fall; to descend).
    2. Hán tự form of hàng (to surrender).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]