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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 38 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 十中女 (JLV), four-corner 50404, composition ⿱⿻)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 257, character 30
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6140
  • Dae Jaweon: page 522, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1036, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+59BB

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation 1[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (14)
Final () (39)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰei/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰei/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰɛi/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰɛj/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰei/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰiei/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰiei/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tshej ›
Old
Chinese
/*[tsʰ]ˤəj/
English consort, wife

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 9913
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰiːl/

Definitions[edit]

  1. wife

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (14)
Final () (39)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰeiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰeiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰɛiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰɛjH/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰeiH/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰieiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰieiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tshejH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[tsʰ]ˤəj-s/
English give as wife

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 9923
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰiːls/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to give a wife to; to give as a wife; to become married to a man
  2. to marry a woman

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. spouse

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
つま
Grade: 5
kun'yomi

From ‎(tsuma, side, edge), indicating the person who is at the side of someone: a spouse.[1] Compare the English expression better half.

This term originally referred to either a male (husband) or female (wife) spouse. In modern usage, this term refers only to a female spouse.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (archaic)

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana つま, romaji tsuma)

  1. (archaic) the male or female partner in a marriage: a spouse
  2. (humble, only refers to one's own) the female partner in a marriage: wife
    • 1999 February 15, Osamu Tezuka, “未知への挑戦 [A Challenge of the Third Kind]”, in ブラック・ジャック [Black Jack], volume 18 (in Japanese), 8th edition, Tokyo: Kodansha, ISBN 4-06-108768-1, page 176:
       (せん) (せい)……………… (わたし) (つま) (うつく)しいでしょう?
      Sensei……………… Watashi no tsuma wa utsukushii deshō?
      Doctor……………… Do you think my wife is beautiful?

      ああ!すばらしい () (じん)ですよ!
      Ā! Subarashii bijin desu yo!
      Sure! She's a gorgeous lady!

      でしょう?なにしろ (さく) (ねん)のミス・イウレガだったのですから
      Deshō? Nanishiro sakunen no Misu Iurega datta no desu kara
      I know, right? She was last year's Miss Iurega after all
Synonyms[edit]
  • (one’s own wife): 家内 ‎(kanai)
  • (spouse in general): 配偶者 ‎(haigūsha)

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
つま
Grade: 5
kun'yomi

By extension from the at the side sense.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana つま, romaji tsuma)

  1. a side dish
  2. a tangent, a digression, something to the side of the main thing

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(cheo) (hangeul , revised cheo, McCune-Reischauer ch'ŏ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thê, thế)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.