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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *riak/rjiak (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *s-r(y)ak (Matisoff, STEDT); *ryak (Benedict, 1972)

Schuessler (2007) assigned Chinese to → *ja (night) instead. Benedict (1972) listed Chinese 宿 as a reflex of this root, but the initials and vowels are difficult to reconcile.



  1. night
  2. day (24 hours)
  3. to spend the night, overnight


  • Old Chinese: (*ɴ.rak-s (B-S), *laːgs (ZS), night)
    • Middle Chinese: (jiaH)

         Japanese:   (, ​ya)
            Korean:   (, ya)
            Vietnamese:  dạ

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (), /i̯ɛ⁵¹/
  • Kamarupan
    • Kuki-Chin
      *riak-I, riaʔ-II (to spend the night; overnight) (VanBik, 2009)
      • Central Chin
        • Lushai [Mizo]: riak, riah (to spend the night, to lodge for the night)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      /*ʔrak/ ("night, spend the night") (Matisoff, 1972)
      • Burmish
        • Burmese: ရက် (rak, day (24 hours))
      • Loloish: *ʔ-rakᴸ (night), *C-yakᴸ (spend the night) (Bradley, 1979)
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (hxot, (classifier) night)
        • Central Loloish
          • Lisu (Southern): ꓦꓬꓼ (h̃jà, (classifier) night)

See also[edit]