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U+5DF4, 巴
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5DF4

[U+5DF3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5DF5]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 49, +1, 4 strokes, cangjie input 日山 (AU), four-corner 77717, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :

Wikisource


  • KangXi: page 327, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 8745
  • Dae Jaweon: page 631, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 985, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5DF4

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
巴-oracle.svg 巴-seal.svg 巴-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形) — a huge snake.

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Are all these senses related? Some have proposed that these are all derived from the snake sense.”)

"huge snake"
Unclear. Compare
"bar" (unit of pressure)
Borrowed from English bar.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: pa - only in 巴士.
Note:
  • 1pa - literary;
  • 1po - vernacular.
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /pa⁵⁵/
    Harbin /pa⁴⁴/
    /pa²⁴/ ~彥
    Tianjin /pɑ²¹/
    Jinan /pa²¹³/
    Qingdao /pa²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /pa²⁴/
    Xi'an /pa²¹/
    Xining /pa⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /pa⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /pa³¹/
    Ürümqi /pa⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /pa⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /pa⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /pa⁵⁵/
    Kunming /pa̠⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /pɑ³¹/
    Hefei /pa²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /pa¹¹/
    Pingyao /pɑ¹³/
    Hohhot /pa³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /po⁵³/
    /pa⁵³/
    Suzhou /po⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /pɑ³³/
    Wenzhou /po³³/
    Hui Shexian /pa³¹/
    Tunxi /puːə¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /pa³³/
    Xiangtan /pɒ³³/
    Gan Nanchang /pɑ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /pa⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /pɑ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /pa⁵³/
    Nanning /pa⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /pa⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /pa⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /pa⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pa⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /pa³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔba²³/ ~掌
    /ʔba³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (1)
    Final () (98)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /pˠa/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /pᵚa/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /pa/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /paɨ/
    Li
    Rong
    /pa/
    Wang
    Li
    /pa/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /pa/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹  › ‹  ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*pˁra/ /*pˁra/
    English snake [place name]

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 97
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*praː/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (ancient Chinese mythology) a huge snake that could swallow an elephant
    2. to greatly desire; to anxiously hope; to long for
    3. Used as a suffix for objects that are located below or behind.
        ―  wěiba  ―  tail
    4. Used as a suffix for objects that are clumped together due to dryness or stickiness.
        ―  ba  ―  mud
    5. to cling to; to stick to
    6. (Jilu Mandarin, Sichuan, dialectal Wu) to be close to; to be next to
    7. (Beijing, Jilu Mandarin) to open; to spread
    8. (Sichuan) to suit; to fit
    9. (Sichuan) to follow
    10. (Sichuan) to be intimate
    11. (Sichuan) to involve; to implicate
    12. (Sichuan) to kiss up; to curry favour
    13. (Sichuan) to subsidize
    14. (Sichuan) to infect; to contract
    15. (dialectal Mandarin, including Beijing, Shandong, Xinjiang) to sew; to stitch on
    16. (Southwestern Mandarin; Xiamen, Quanzhou Min Nan) dried object
    17. (dialectal Mandarin, Cantonese) Classifier for the number of slaps.
      [Cantonese]  ―  daa2 keoi5 jat1 baa1 [Jyutping]  ―  to give him a slap
    18. (Jiaoliao Mandarin, Sichuan) along
    19. (historical) Ba (an ancient state in modern-day Sichuan)
    20. eastern Sichuan and Chongqing
    21. Short for 巴士 (bāshì, “bus”).
        ―  xiǎo  ―  minibus
    22. (physics) bar (unit of pressure)
    23. Used in the transliteration of foreign words.
        ―    ―  Paris
      拿馬 / 拿马  ―  námǎ  ―  Panama
        ―  lìn  ―  lymph
    24. A surname​.
    Descendants[edit]
    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (Ha)
    • Korean: (, Pa)
    • Vietnamese: Ba ()

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“short=1; a kind of fragrant grass; etc.”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    Etymology 3[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“bamboo fence; bamboo fence”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    Etymology 4[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“cake-like food; tsamba”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    (tomoe): a hidari-futatsudomoe, one of many tomoe designs
    Kanji in this term
    ともえ
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling 鞆絵

    First attested around the 12th century.

    Originally a compound of (tomo, archer's left-wrist protector) +‎ (e, picture, drawing).

    The use of the kanji is possibly for its resemblance to a big snake.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ともえ) (tomoe (historical kana ともゑ)

    1. a circular design resembling swirling water, a comma, or an archer's bow
    2. (architecture) a piece of wood, usually a floorboard or an eave, with a tomoe pattern
    3. an oxcart with the wickerwork in a tomoe pattern
    4. a 家紋 (kamon, family crest) with various tomoe designs
    5. Short for 巴瓦 (tomoegawara): a tile with a tomoe design
    6. turning (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    7. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    Derived terms[edit]
    Descendants[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (ともえ) (Tomoe (historical kana ともゑ)

    1. Short for 巴御前 (Tomoe Gozen): 12th-century female samurai
    2. a 謡曲 (dōkyoku, noh song) based on a story from The Tale of the Heike
    3. a surname
    4. a unisex given name

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Jinmeiyō
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC pˠa). The 漢音 (kan'on) reading, so likely a later borrowing.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    () (Ha

    1. (historical) Ba (an ancient state in eastern Sichuan)
    Derived terms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC pˠa).

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 이름 (ttang ireum pa))

    1. Hanja form? of (used in placenames).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: ba ((bang)(gia)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], [1]
    : Nôm readings: [1][2][3][6][4][5][7], ba[1][2][3], [1], va[3]

    1. Hán tự form of Ba (used in placenames).
    2. Hán tự form of ba (to adhere; to stick to).
    3. Nôm form of (used in compounds).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]