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Etymology 1[edit]

Possibly from Malay kampong, kampung (group of buildings, village), via Dutch or Portuguese [1].


  • (UK) IPA(key): /ˈkɒmpaʊnd/
    • (file)
  • (US) enPR: kŏm'pound, IPA(key): /ˈkɑmpaʊnd/


compound (plural compounds)

  1. an enclosure within which workers, prisoners, or soldiers are confined
  2. a group of buildings situated close together, e.g. for a school or block of offices
    • 2019 March 7, Masayuki, Yuda, “Thai court: pro-Thaksin party must disband for nominating princess”, in Nikkei Asian Review[1], Nikkei Inc, retrieved 2019-03-07:
      Some 20 supporters managed to get inside the court compounds. About half an hour after the verdict was delivered, they gathered near the Constitutional Court entrance and shouted: "On March 24, use your pen to oust the dictator."

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English compounen, from Middle French componre, compondre (to put together), from Latin componō, from Latin com- (together) + ponō (to put).



compound (not comparable)

  1. composed of elements; not simple
    a compound word
    • (Can we date this quote by I. Watts and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      Compound substances are made up of two or more simple substances.
  2. (mathematics) dealing with numbers of various denominations of quantity, or with processes more complex than the simple process
    compound addition; compound proportion
  3. (music) An octave higher than originally (i.e. a compound major second is equivalent to a major ninth).
  • (composed of elements): simple
Derived terms[edit]


compound (plural compounds)

  1. Anything made by combining several things.
  2. (chemistry, dated) A substance made from any combination elements.
  3. (chemistry) A substance formed by chemical union of two or more ingredients in definite proportions by weight.
  4. (linguistics) A lexeme that consists of more than one stem; compound word; for example laptop, formed from lap and top.
  5. (rail transport) a compound locomotive, a steam locomotive with both high-pressure and low-pressure cylinders.
    • 1961 March, "Balmore", “Driving and firing modern French steam locomotives”, in Trains Illustrated, page 148:
      From a dead stand, with regulator full open and the lever at about 50 per cent we got up to about 60 m.p.h. by the top of the bank. The big compound was making plenty of noise - but what musical and wonderful noise!


compound (third-person singular simple present compounds, present participle compounding, simple past and past participle compounded)

  1. (transitive) To form (a resulting mixture) by combining different elements, ingredients, or parts.
    to compound a medicine
  2. (transitive) To assemble (ingredients) into a whole; to combine, mix, or unite.
    • (Can we date this quote by Addison and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      We have the power of altering and compounding those images into all the varieties of picture.
  3. (transitive) To modify or change by combination with some other thing or part; to mingle with something else.
  4. (transitive, law) To settle by agreeing on less than the claim, or on different terms than those stipulated.
    to compound a debt
  5. (transitive) To settle amicably; to adjust by agreement; to compromise.
  6. (intransitive) To come to terms of agreement; to agree; to settle by a compromise; usually followed by with before the person participating, and for before the thing compounded or the consideration.
    • c. 1603–1604, William Shakespeare, “Measvre for Measure”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: Printed by Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act IV, scene ii]:
      Here's a fellow will help you to-morrow; [] compound with him by the year.
    • (Can we date this quote by Clarendon and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      They were at last glad to compound for his bare commitment to the Tower.
    • (Can we date this quote by R. Carew and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      Cornwall compounded to furnish ten oxen after Michaelmas for thirty pounds.
    • (Can we date this quote by Butler and provide title, author's full name, and other details?), Hudibras
      Compound for sins they are inclined to / By damning those they have no mind to.
  7. (transitive, obsolete) To compose; to constitute.
  8. (intransitive, finance) To increase in value with interest, where the interest is earned on both the principal sum and prior earned interest.
  9. (transitive) To worsen a situation.
    • 2020 April 12, Simon Tisdall, “US's global reputation hits rock-bottom over Trump's coronavirus response”, in The Guardian[2]:
      Europeans were already outraged by Trump’s reported efforts to acquire monopoly rights to a coronavirus vaccine under development in Germany. This latest example of nationalistic self-interest compounded anger across the EU over Trump’s travel ban, imposed last month without consultation or scientific justification.
    • (Can we date this quote?), New Family Structure Study
      This problem is compounded when these studies compare data from the small convenience samples of gay parenting with data on heterosexual parenting
Usage notes[edit]

The usage in sense 9 above is widespread but not wholly accepted. The original meaning of the word (see senses 4, 5 and 6 above) implies resolution of a problem, not worsening. It has been suggested (Fraser 1973) that the reverse usage arose by confusion with phrases such as compound interest.

Derived terms[edit]


  1. ^ compound” in Douglas Harper, Online Etymology Dictionary, 2001–2020.

External links[edit]