-ok

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Abenaki[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ok

  1. A suffix used to form the plurals of some animate words.
    agaskw (woodchuck)agask(w)ok (woodchucks)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used to form the plurals of many words ending in w (which it may suppress), and of some other words (which likely ended in w at an earlier stage of the language).
  • See the usage notes at -ak.

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

-o- (linking vowel) +‎ -k (plural suffix)

Suffix[edit]

-ok

  1. (plural suffix) -s, -es
    kor (age)korok (ages)
    Az elektromos autók hangtalanok. - Electric cars are quiet.
Usage notes[edit]
  • (plural suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -k is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    (woman) →‎ k (women)
    fa (tree) →‎ k (trees)
    csésze (cup) →‎ csészék (cups)
    -ak is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    ház (house) →‎ házak (houses)
    -ok is added to most back-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    pad (bench) →‎ padok (benches)
    -ek is added to unrounded front-vowel words (and some rounded front-vowel words) ending in a consonant:
    kert (garden) →‎ kertek (gardens)
    könyv (book) →‎ könyvek (books)
    -ök is added to most rounded front-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    kör (circle) →‎ körök (circles)
  • Note that the plural form is not used after definite and indefinite numerals in Hungarian (e.g. három könyv – three books, néhány óra múlva – in a few hours), only if there is no numeral before the phrase. There are very few (traditional, archaic) exceptions, including háromkirályok, mindenszentek, összes művei/versei/költeményei/elbeszélései (compare plural -i after a possessive suffix), as well as minden oroszok cárja and minden világok legjobbika; the present-day forms would have orosz and világ.
  • The regular plural suffix for adjectives is -ak (e.g. okosak (smart/clever ones)), while about a dozen adjectives take -ok, especially those ending in -k/-g (vakok (blind ones), gazdagok (rich ones), vastagok (thick ones), boldogok (happy ones), hanyagok (negligent ones), hazugok (lying ones), álnokok (treacherous ones), undokok (nasty ones)), some other adjectives with different endings (szabadok (free ones), bolondok (foolish ones), nagyok (big ones), fiatalok (young ones), aljasok (base ones), mások (different ones), kopaszok (bald ones)), as well as nationality names (see the back-vowel terms in their category) and adjectives formed with -talan, -atlan, and -tlan. On the other hand, rounded front-vowel adjectives normally take -ek (e.g. zöldek (green ones)), except for nationality names (see the rounded front-vowel terms in their category).
  • If a word can be both a noun and an adjective, the form of its ending gives information about its function, e.g. komikusok “comedians” (a noun), komikusak “comical ones” (an adjective as part of the predicate). The same distinction also exists with words with rounded front vowels, e.g. ismerős, where ismerősök is used as a noun (“acquaintances”) while ismerősek means “familiar ones” (as part of the predicate).

Etymology 2[edit]

-o- (linking vowel) +‎ -k (personal suffix)

Suffix[edit]

-ok

  1. (personal suffix) Used to form the first-person singular present tense of verbs (indicative mood, indefinite conjugation).
    ír (to write)írok (I write, I am writing)
Usage notes[edit]
  • (personal suffix) Variants:
    -ok is added to back vowel verbs
    -ek is added to unrounded front vowel verbs
    -ök is added to rounded front vowel verbs
    -om is added to back vowel -ik verbs
    -em is added to unrounded front vowel -ik verbs
    -öm is added to rounded front vowel -ik verbs

See also[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old English -oc, -uc, from Proto-Germanic *-ukaz. More at -ock.

Suffix[edit]

-ok

  1. suffix forming diminutives of nouns

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse vaka, vǫku (wake, vigil). Doublet of vake and vòke.

Suffix[edit]

-ok m

  1. Similar to English -mas.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ok (Cyrillic spelling -ок)

  1. Suffix appended to the present stem of verbs to form an adjective denoting a feature or a dimension.

See also[edit]