-ok

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Abenaki[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ok

  1. A suffix used to form the plurals of some animate words.
    agaskw (woodchuck)agask(w)ok (woodchucks)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used to form the plurals of many words ending in w (which it may suppress), and of some other words (which likely ended in w at an earlier stage of the language).
  • See the usage notes at -ak.

Basque[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ok

  1. Absolutive and ergative proximal plural suffix.
    1. we
      Ikasleok azterketa errezak nahiago ditugu.We students prefer easy exams.
    2. you
    3. these
      Otsoak mendiotan zehar dabiltza.There are wolves wandering around these mountains.

Usage notes[edit]

  • There are two uses for this suffix:
    • Replacing the normal plural -ak when the speaker/interlocutor is part of a group.
    • A clitic equivalent of hauek (these). However, they aren't exact synonyms, as -ok often implies a real physical proximity.
  • The inflection is similar to that of -ak, but replacing -e- by -o-.

Declension[edit]

Basque inflectional suffixes
indefinite singular plural proximal plural
absolutive -∅ -a -ak -ok
ergative -k, -ek -ak -ek
dative -ri, -i -ari -ei -oi
genitive -ren, -en -aren -en -on
comitative -rekin, -ekin -arekin -ekin -okin
causative -rengatik, -engatik -arengatik -engatik -ongatik
benefactive -rentzat, -entzat -arentzat -entzat -ontzat
instrumental -z, -ez -az -ez -oz
inessive anim. -rengan, -engan -arengan -engan -oengan
inanim. -tan, -etan -an -etan -otan
locative anim.
inanim. -tako, -etako -ko, -eko -etako -otako
allative anim. -rengana, -engana -arengana -engana -ongana
inanim. -tara, -etara -ra, -era -etara -otara
terminative anim. -renganaino, -enganaino -arenganaino -enganaino -onganaino
inanim. -taraino, -etaraino -raino, -eraino -etaraino -otaraino
directive anim. -renganantz, -enganantz -arenganantz -enganantz -onganantz
inanim. -tarantz, -etarantz -rantz, -erantz -etarantz -otarantz
destinative anim. -renganako, -enganako -arenganako -enganako -onganako
inanim. -tarako, -etarako -rako, -erako -etarako -otarako
ablative anim. -rengandik, -engandik -arengandik -engandik -ongandik
inanim. -tatik, -etatik -tik, -etik -etik -otik
partitive -rik, -ik
prolative -tzat
The forms shown first are used when the ending is a vowel, the ones after the comma when it is a consonant.

Further reading[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

-o- (linking vowel) +‎ -k (plural suffix)

Suffix[edit]

-ok

  1. (plural suffix) -s, -es
    kor (age)korok (ages)
    Az elektromos autók hangtalanok.Electric cars are quiet.
Usage notes[edit]
  • (plural suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -k is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    (woman) →‎ k (women)
    fa (tree) →‎ k (trees)
    csésze (cup) →‎ csészék (cups)
    -ak is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    ház (house) →‎ házak (houses)
    -ok is added to most back-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    pad (bench) →‎ padok (benches)
    -ek is added to unrounded (and some rounded) front-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    kert (garden) →‎ kertek (gardens)
    könyv (book) →‎ könyvek (books)
    -ök is added to most rounded front-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    kör (circle) →‎ körök (circles)
  • Note that the plural form is not used after definite and indefinite numerals in Hungarian: három könyv (three books), néhány óra múlva (in a few hours’ time). There are very few (traditional, archaic) exceptions, including háromkirályok (the Three Magi), mindenszentek (All Saints), and certain archaic phrases with összes (all) and minden (every) (see their Usage notes).
  • The regular plural suffix for back-vowel adjectives is -ak, for example okosak (smart/clever ones). On the other hand, ethnonyms take -ok (e.g. olaszok (Italians), see the back-vowel terms in their category), as well as some other adjectives, including privative (“…-less”) ones (formed with -talan, -atlan, or -tlan). Rounded front-vowel adjectives normally take -ek, for example zöldek (green ones), except for demonyms (see rounded front-vowel terms in their category).
  • If a word can be both a noun and an adjective, the form of its ending gives information about its function, e.g. játékosok (players, noun) and játékosak (playful, adjective as part of a plural predicate). The same distinction also exists with words with rounded front vowels, e.g. ismerős: ismerősök (acquaintances, noun) and ismerősek (familiar, adjective as part of a plural predicate).

Etymology 2[edit]

-o- (linking vowel) +‎ -k (personal suffix)

Suffix[edit]

-ok

  1. (personal suffix) Used to form the first-person singular present tense of verbs (indicative mood, indefinite conjugation).
    ír (to write)írok (I write, I am writing)
Usage notes[edit]
  • (personal suffix) Variants:
    -ok is added to back-vowel verbs
    -ek is added to unrounded front-vowel verbs
    -ök is added to rounded front-vowel verbs
    -om may be added to back-vowel -ik verbs
    -em may be added to unrounded front-vowel -ik verbs
    -öm may be added to rounded front-vowel -ik verbs

See also[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old English -oc, -uc, from Proto-West Germanic *-uk, from Proto-Germanic *-ukaz. More at -ock.

Suffix[edit]

-ok

  1. suffix forming diminutives of nouns

Descendants[edit]

  • English: -ock

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse vaka, vǫku (wake, vigil). Doublet of vake and vòke.

Suffix[edit]

-ok m

  1. Similar to English -mas.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ok m

  1. Forms masculine nouns, sometimes with a derogatory connotation
    jabłko + ‎-ok → ‎jabcok

Declension[edit]

Inanimate

Animate

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • -ok in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • -ok in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ok (Cyrillic spelling -ок)

  1. Suffix appended to the present stem of verbs to form an adjective denoting a feature or a dimension.

See also[edit]


Slovak[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ъkъ.

Suffix[edit]

-ok m

  1. Used to form masculine nouns.

Derived terms[edit]