-k

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English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English -ken, -kien, from Old English -cian, from Proto-West Germanic *-kōn, from Proto-Germanic *-kōną. Cognate with West Frisian -kje, German -chen, Danish -ke, Swedish -ka. Perhaps related to Old English diminutive suffix -uc, -oc. More at -ock.

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. (obsolete, no longer productive) A suffix found in words of Middle English, Old English, usually with an intensive or frequentative effect.
    tale, talk; steal, stalk; smile, smirk; mire, mirk; hear, hark; fare, firk; yare, yark

Abenaki[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. A suffix used to form the plurals of some animate words.
    tmakwa (beaver)tmakwak (beavers)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used to form the plurals of almost all words that end in a, and of some words that end in other vowels or in the semivowel w; not used to form the plurals of words ending in consonants.
  • See the usage notes at -ak.

Afar[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. Marks the ablative case: from
  2. Marks the elative case: out of
  3. Marks the perlative case: via, through
  4. Marks the malefactive case: for ...'s nuisance
  5. Marks the subject of a comparison: than
  6. (+ én) Marks the material from which an object is made: -en

References[edit]

  • Mohamed Hassan Kamil (2015) L’afar: description grammaticale d’une langue couchitique (Djibouti, Erythrée et Ethiopie)[1], Paris: Université Sorbonne Paris Cité (doctoral thesis), page 361

Basque[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -ek (after consonants)

Etymology[edit]

Unknown. Unrelated to the adverbial suffixes -ki and -ka.[1]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. Ergative indefinite suffix.

Declension[edit]

Basque inflectional suffixes
indefinite singular plural proximal plural
absolutive -∅ -a -ak -ok
ergative -k, -ek -ak -ek
dative -ri, -i -ari -ei -oi
genitive -ren, -en -aren -en -on
comitative -rekin, -ekin -arekin -ekin -okin
causative -rengatik, -engatik -arengatik -engatik -ongatik
benefactive -rentzat, -entzat -arentzat -entzat -ontzat
instrumental -z, -ez -az -ez -oz
inessive anim. -rengan, -engan -arengan -engan -oengan
inanim. -tan, -etan -an -etan -otan
locative anim.
inanim. -tako, -etako -ko, -eko -etako -otako
allative anim. -rengana, -engana -arengana -engana -ongana
inanim. -tara, -etara -ra, -era -etara -otara
terminative anim. -renganaino, -enganaino -arenganaino -enganaino -onganaino
inanim. -taraino, -etaraino -raino, -eraino -etaraino -otaraino
directive anim. -renganantz, -enganantz -arenganantz -enganantz -onganantz
inanim. -tarantz, -etarantz -rantz, -erantz -etarantz -otarantz
destinative anim. -renganako, -enganako -arenganako -enganako -onganako
inanim. -tarako, -etarako -rako, -erako -etarako -otarako
ablative anim. -rengandik, -engandik -arengandik -engandik -ongandik
inanim. -tatik, -etatik -tik, -etik -etik -otik
partitive -rik, -ik
prolative -tzat
The forms shown first are used when the ending is a vowel, the ones after the comma when it is a consonant.

References[edit]

  1. ^ -k [2]” in Etymological Dictionary of Basque by R. L. Trask, sussex.ac.uk.

Chuukese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. (added to verbs) you (in the singular, indirect object suffix)

Estonian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate with Finnish -kko.

Suffix[edit]

-k (genitive -ku, partitive -kut)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs, or sometimes from other nominals. The derivations can express the following:
    1. a single instance of an action
      minema (to go)minek (a going)
      ründama (to attack)rünnak (an attack)
    2. the object of an action
      õppima (to study)õpik (textbook)
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate with Finnish -kki.

Suffix[edit]

-k (genitive -ki, partitive -kit)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs denoting an instrument of action.
    sõitma (to drive)sõiduk (vehicle)
    hõljuma (to hover)hõljuk (hovercraft)
    tõstma (to raise)tõstuk (lift)
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

May be the same as etymology 2.

Suffix[edit]

-k (genitive -gi, partitive -ki)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs, or sometimes from other nominals. The derivations can express the following:
    1. the result of an action
      jääma (to remain)jääk (residue, remainder)
      saama (to receive)saak (yield)
    2. the object of an action
      sööma (to eat)söök (food)
      jooma (to drink)jook (drink, beverage)

Hungarian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. (plural suffix) -s, -es
    hajó (ship)hajók (ships)
    alma (apple)almák (apples)
    mese (fairy tale)mesék (fairy tales)
  2. (personal suffix) Denotes the first-person singular present tense in verb suffixes for all moods (indicative, conditional and subjunctive).
    ír (to write)
    írok (I write, I am writing)
    írnék (I would write)
    írjak (I should write)
  3. (obsolete) Diminutive suffix.
    lélek (soul)
    fészek (nest)
  4. (obsolete) Instantaneous verb-forming suffix. Part of only a few verbs and suffixes, such as reszket, serken, sikolt, szerkeszt, -kol/-kel/-köl, -kod/-ked/-köd, -dokol/-dekel/-dököl.

Usage notes[edit]

  • (plural suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -k is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    (woman) →‎ k (women)
    fa (tree) →‎ k (trees)
    csésze (cup) →‎ csészék (cups)
    -ak is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    ház (house) →‎ házak (houses)
    -ok is added to most back-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    pad (bench) →‎ padok (benches)
    -ek is added to unrounded (and some rounded) front-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    kert (garden) →‎ kertek (gardens)
    könyv (book) →‎ könyvek (books)
    -ök is added to most rounded front-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    kör (circle) →‎ körök (circles)
  • Note that the plural form is not used after definite and indefinite numerals in Hungarian: három könyv (three books), néhány óra múlva (in a few hours’ time). There are very few (traditional, archaic) exceptions, including háromkirályok (the Three Magi), mindenszentek (All Saints), and certain archaic phrases with összes (all) and minden (every) (see their Usage notes).
  • The regular plural suffix for back-vowel adjectives is -ak, for example okosak (smart/clever ones). On the other hand, ethnonyms take -ok (e.g. olaszok (Italians), see the back-vowel terms in their category), as well as some other adjectives, including privative (“…-less”) ones (formed with -talan, -atlan, or -tlan). Rounded front-vowel adjectives normally take -ek, for example zöldek (green ones), except for demonyms (see rounded front-vowel terms in their category).
  • If a word can be both a noun and an adjective, the form of its ending gives information about its function, e.g. játékosok (players, noun) and játékosak (playful, adjective as part of a plural predicate). The same distinction also exists with words with rounded front vowels, e.g. ismerős: ismerősök (acquaintances, noun) and ismerősek (familiar, adjective as part of a plural predicate).

See also[edit]


Ingrian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Reduced form of -ka.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. Added to the indicative of a verb, used to form the interrogative aspect.
    • 1936, V. I. Junus; P. L. Maksimov, Inkeroisin keelen oppikirja alkuşkouluja vart (ensimäine osa), Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 29:
      Töötk siä meille hoomukseel?
      Will you come to us tomorrow?
Usage notes[edit]
  • When added to a verb form ending in the consonant -t, the full forms -ka and -kä may be used.

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Russian -ка (-ka), probably influenced by Etymology 1.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. Added to an imperative of a verb, used to form a familiar request.
    • 1936, D. I. Efimov, Lukukirja: Inkeroisia alkușkouluja vart (ensimäine osa), Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 7:
      Määk siä șkouluu - sanoi Semon däädä, ilma sinnua saamma aikoo.
      Go to school - said uncle Semon, we'll get by without you.

Iñupiaq[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. dual number in the absolutive case. Numbers vary between singular -q and dual -k depending on whether they modify a noun or are being used for counting

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k m

  1. used on masculine nouns to form a diminutive

Derived terms[edit]


Maltese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From both Arabic ـَكَ(-aka) and ـِكِ(-iki).

Suffix[edit]

-k m or f

  1. you (object suffix, second person singular)

Related terms[edit]


Mohawk[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. continuative suffix

References[edit]

  • Nora Deering; Helga H. Delisle (1976) Mohawk: A teaching grammar (preliminary version), Quebec: Manitou College, page 442
  • Akwiratékha’ Martin (2018) Tekawennahsonterónnion - Kanien’kéha Morphology, Kahnawà:ke: Kanien’kehá:ka Onkwawén:na Raotitióhkwa Language and Cultural Center, page 92

Ojibwe[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. Alternative form of -g in the conjunct form of d-final inanimate instransitive verbs (vii)
  2. A suffix denoting the second-person plural to third person singular imperative form of a transitive animate verb (vta) with a Cw ending

Usage notes[edit]

In d-final intransitive inanimate verbs (vii), the final d merges with -g to produce -k.

See also[edit]


Old Norse[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-k (enclitic)

  1. enclitic form of ek
    hafða + ‎-k → ‎hafðak
    em + ‎-k → ‎emk
    • 9th c., Þjóðólfr of Hvinir, Ynglingatal, verse 27:
      Þat veitk bezt / und bláum himni
      kenninafn, / svát konungr eigi []
      I know that the best / nickname
      under the blue sky / that a king might have []

See also[edit]


Onondaga[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. continuative suffix

References[edit]

  • Hanni Woodbury (2018) A Reference Grammar of the Onondaga Language, University of Toronto, page 104

Veps[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Particle[edit]

-k

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]

  • Zajceva, N. G.; Mullonen, M. I. (2007), “а, ли”, in Uz’ venä-vepsläine vajehnik / Novyj russko-vepsskij slovarʹ [New Russian–Veps Dictionary], Petrozavodsk: Periodika

Yoruba[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. Used when an ordinal number is written with Arabic numerals. Often considered an abbreviation of k-, but can be used with non-k-ordinal numbers.
    kejì2k
    ogún20k