-k

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English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English -ken, -kien, from Old English -cian, from Proto-West Germanic *-kōn, from Proto-Germanic *-kōną. Cognate with West Frisian -kje, German -chen, Danish -ke, Swedish -ka. Perhaps related to Old English diminutive suffix -uc, -oc. More at -ock.

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. (obsolete, no longer productive) A suffix found in words of Middle English, Old English, usually with an intensive or frequentative effect.
    tale, talk; steal, stalk; smile, smirk; mire, mirk; hear, hark; fare, firk; yare, yark

Abenaki[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. A suffix used to form the plurals of some animate words.
    tmakwa (beaver)tmakwak (beavers)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used to form the plurals of almost all words that end in a, and of some words that end in other vowels or in the semivowel w; not used to form the plurals of words ending in consonants.
  • See the usage notes at -ak.

Chuukese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. (added to verbs) you (in the singular, indirect object suffix)

Estonian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate with Finnish -kko.

Suffix[edit]

-k (genitive -ku, partitive -kut)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs, or sometimes from other nominals. The derivations can express the following:
    1. a single instance of an action
      minema (to go)minek (a going)
      ründama (to attack)rünnak (an attack)
    2. the object of an action
      õppima (to study)õpik (textbook)
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate with Finnish -kki.

Suffix[edit]

-k (genitive -ki, partitive -kit)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs denoting an instrument of action.
    sõitma (to drive)sõiduk (vehicle)
    hõljuma (to hover)hõljuk (hovercraft)
    tõstma (to raise)tõstuk (lift)
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 3[edit]

May be the same as etymology 2.

Suffix[edit]

-k (genitive -gi, partitive -ki)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs, or sometimes from other nominals. The derivations can express the following:
    1. the result of an action
      jääma (to remain)jääk (residue, remainder)
      saama (to receive)saak (yield)
    2. the object of an action
      sööma (to eat)söök (food)
      jooma (to drink)jook (drink, beverage)

Hungarian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. (plural suffix) -s, -es
    hajó (ship)hajók (ships)
    alma (apple)almák (apples)
    mese (fairy tale)mesék (fairy tales)
  2. (personal suffix) Denotes the first-person singular present tense in verb suffixes for all moods (indicative, conditional and subjunctive).
    ír (to write)
    írok (I write, I am writing)
    írnék (I would write)
    írjak (I should write)
  3. (obsolete) Diminutive suffix.
    lélek (soul)
    fészek (nest)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (plural suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -k is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    (woman) →‎ k (women)
    fa (tree) →‎ k (trees)
    csésze (cup) →‎ csészék (cups)
    -ak is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    ház (house) →‎ házak (houses)
    -ok is added to most back-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    pad (bench) →‎ padok (benches)
    -ek is added to unrounded (and some rounded) front-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    kert (garden) →‎ kertek (gardens)
    könyv (book) →‎ könyvek (books)
    -ök is added to most rounded front-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    kör (circle) →‎ körök (circles)
  • Note that the plural form is not used after definite and indefinite numerals in Hungarian: három könyv (three books), néhány óra múlva (in a few hours’ time). There are very few (traditional, archaic) exceptions, including háromkirályok (the Three Magi), mindenszentek (All Saints), and certain archaic phrases with összes (all) and minden (every) (see their Usage notes).
  • The regular plural suffix for back-vowel adjectives is -ak, for example okosak (smart/clever ones). On the other hand, ethnonyms take -ok (e.g. olaszok (Italians), see the back-vowel terms in their category), as well as some other adjectives, including privative (“…-less”) ones (formed with -talan, -atlan, or -tlan). Rounded front-vowel adjectives normally take -ek, for example zöldek (green ones), except for demonyms (see rounded front-vowel terms in their category).
  • If a word can be both a noun and an adjective, the form of its ending gives information about its function, e.g. játékosok (players, noun) and játékosak (playful, adjective as part of a plural predicate). The same distinction also exists with words with rounded front vowels, e.g. ismerős: ismerősök (acquaintances, noun) and ismerősek (familiar, adjective as part of a plural predicate).

See also[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. used on masculine nouns to form a diminutive

Derived terms[edit]



Maltese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From both Arabic ـَكَ(-aka) and ـِكِ(-iki).

Suffix[edit]

-k m or f

  1. you (object suffix, second person singular)

Related terms[edit]


Ojibwe[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. Alternative form of -g in the conjunct form of d-final inanimate instransitive verbs (vii)
  2. A suffix denoting the second-person plural to third person singular imperative form of a transitive animate verb (vta) with a Cw ending

Usage notes[edit]

In d-final intransitive inanimate verbs (vii), the final d merges with -g to produce -k.

See also[edit]


Old Norse[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-k (enclitic)

  1. enclitic form of ek
    hafða + ‎-k → ‎hafðak
    em + ‎-k → ‎emk
    • 9th c., Þjóðólfr of Hvinir, Ynglingatal, verse 27:
      Þat veitk bezt / und bláum himni
      kenninafn, / svát konungr eigi []
      I know that the best / nickname
      under the blue sky / that a king might have []

See also[edit]


Veps[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Particle[edit]

-k

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]

  • Zajceva, N. G.; Mullonen, M. I. (2007) , “а, ли”, in Uz’ venä-vepsläine vajehnik / Novyj russko-vepsskij slovarʹ [New Russian–Veps Dictionary], Petrozavodsk: Periodika

Yoruba[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. Used when an ordinal number is written with Arabic numerals. Often considered an abbreviation of k-, but can be used with non-k-ordinal numbers.
    kejì2k
    ogún20k