-k

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English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English -ken, -kien, from Old English -cian, from Proto-Germanic *-kōną. Cognate with West Frisian -kje, German -chen, Danish -ke, Swedish -ka. Perhaps related to Old English diminutive suffix -uc, -oc. More at -ock.

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. (obsolete, no longer productive) A suffix found in words of Middle English, Old English, usually with an intensive or frequentative effect.
    tale, talk; steal, stalk; smile, smirk; mire, mirk; lour, lurk; hear, hark; fare, firk; yare, yark

Abenaki[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. A suffix used to form the plurals of some animate words.
    tmakwa (beaver)tmakwak (beavers)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Used to form the plurals of almost all words that end in a, and of some words that end in other vowels or in the semivowel w; not used to form the plurals of words ending in consonants.
  • See the usage notes at -ak.

Chuukese[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. (added to verbs) you (singular, indirect object suffix)

Estonian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate with Finnish -kko.

Suffix[edit]

-k (genitive -ku, partitive -kut)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs, or sometimes from other nominals. The derivations can express the following:
    1. a single instance of an action
      minema (to go)minek (a going)
      ründama (to attack)rünnak (an attack)
    2. the object of an action
      õppima (to study)õpik (textbook)
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate with Finnish -kki.

Suffix[edit]

-k (genitive -ki, partitive -kit)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs denoting an instrument of action.
    sõitma (to drive)sõiduk (vehicle)
    hõljuma (to hover)hõljuk (hovercraft)
    tõstma (to raise)tõstuk (lift)
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 3[edit]

May be the same as etymology 2.

Suffix[edit]

-k (genitive -gi, partitive -ki)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs, or sometimes from other nominals. The derivations can express the following:
    1. the result of an action
      jääma (to remain)jääk (residue, remainder)
      saama (to receive)saak (yield)
    2. the object of an action
      sööma (to eat)söök (food)
      jooma (to drink)jook (drink, beverage)

Hungarian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. (plural suffix) -s, -es
    hajó (ship)hajók (ships)
    alma (apple)almák (apples)
    mese (fairy tale)mesék (fairy tales)
  2. (personal suffix) Denotes the first-person singular present tense in verb suffixes for all moods (indicative, conditional and subjunctive).
    ír (to write)
    írok (I write, I am writing)
    írnék (I would write)
    írjak (I should write)
  3. (obsolete) Diminutive suffix.
    lélek (soul)
    fészek (nest)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (plural suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -k is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    (woman) →‎ k (women)
    fa (tree) →‎ k (trees)
    csésze (cup) →‎ csészék (cups)
    -ak is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    ház (house) →‎ házak (houses)
    -ok is added to most back-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    pad (bench) →‎ padok (benches)
    -ek is added to unrounded front-vowel words (and some rounded front-vowel words) ending in a consonant:
    kert (garden) →‎ kertek (gardens)
    könyv (book) →‎ könyvek (books)
    -ök is added to most rounded front-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    kör (circle) →‎ körök (circles)
  • Note that the plural form is not used after definite and indefinite numerals in Hungarian (e.g. három könyv – three books, néhány óra múlva – in a few hours), only if there is no numeral before the phrase. There are very few (traditional, archaic) exceptions, including háromkirályok, mindenszentek, összes művei/versei/költeményei/elbeszélései (compare plural -i after a possessive suffix), as well as minden oroszok cárja and minden világok legjobbika; the present-day forms would have orosz and világ.
  • The regular plural suffix for adjectives is -ak (e.g. okosak (smart/clever ones)), while about a dozen adjectives take -ok, especially those ending in -k/-g (vakok (blind ones), gazdagok (rich ones), vastagok (thick ones), boldogok (happy ones), hanyagok (negligent ones), hazugok (lying ones), álnokok (treacherous ones), undokok (nasty ones)), some other adjectives with different endings (szabadok (free ones), bolondok (foolish ones), nagyok (big ones), fiatalok (young ones), aljasok (base ones), mások (different ones), kopaszok (bald ones)), as well as nationality names (see the back-vowel terms in their category) and adjectives formed with -talan, -atlan, and -tlan. On the other hand, rounded front-vowel adjectives normally take -ek (e.g. zöldek (green ones)), except for nationality names (see the rounded front-vowel terms in their category).
  • If a word can be both a noun and an adjective, the form of its ending gives information about its function, e.g. komikusok “comedians” (a noun), komikusak “comical ones” (an adjective as part of the predicate). The same distinction also exists with words with rounded front vowels, e.g. ismerős, where ismerősök is used as a noun (“acquaintances”) while ismerősek means “familiar ones” (as part of the predicate).

See also[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-k

  1. used on masculine nouns to form a diminutive

Derived terms[edit]



Maltese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From both Arabic ـَكَ(-aka) and ـِكِ(-iki).

Suffix[edit]

-k m or f

  1. you (object suffix, second person singular)

Related terms[edit]


Old Norse[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-k (enclitic)

  1. enclitic form of ek
    hafða + ‎-k → ‎hafðak
    em + ‎-k → ‎emk

See also[edit]


Veps[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Particle[edit]

-k

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]

  • Zajceva, N. G.; Mullonen, M. I. (2007), “а, ли”, in Uz’ venä-vepsläine vajehnik / Novyj russko-vepsskij slovarʹ [New Russian–Veps Dictionary], Petrozavodsk: Periodika