Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Etymology 1[edit]

Nominal suffix, formed by rebracketing of *-kъ, typically appended to ancient u-stems. Can also be attached to o-stems to form derivatives of the specified object/property.


*-ъkъ m

  1. Forms diminutives from old u-stem nouns
    *listъ (leaf)*listъkъ (leaflet, a small leaf)
    *synъ (son)*synъkъ (boy, little son)
    *bebrъ (beaver)*bebrъkъ (small beaver)
    *medъ (honey)*medъkъ (honey product)
  2. Deadjectival, denoting a carrier of the specified property (rare)
    *pętъ (fifth)*pętъkъ (Friday)
    *četvьrtъ (fourth)*četvьrtъkъ (Thursday)
    *pǫtevъ (path-related)*pǫtъkъ (footwear, shoe for walking)
    *bělъ (white)*bělъkъ (albumen)
    *žьltъ (yellow)*žьltъkъ (yolk)
    *okrǫžьnъ (circumferential)*krǫžьkъ (circle, shape with circular form)
  3. Structural formant, without a base noun to synchronically derive from
    *pěsъkъ (sand)
  4. Deverbal from the past participle in *-tъ, forms resultant nouns of the specified action
    *dobyti (to extract)*dobytъ*dobytъkъ (stock)
    *dati (to give)*datъ*datъkъ (yield)
    *zaperti (to expire)*zapьrtъ*zapъrtъkъ (addle egg)
    *začęti (to conceive)*začętъ*začętъkъ (embryo, germ)
  5. Deverbal, forms abstract nouns of the specified action
    *pominǫti (to pass)*pominъkъ (livelihood, means to survive)
    *do (to, nearby) + *jьměti (to have)*nedojьmъkъ (poverty, lack of income)
  6. Deverbal, forms an instance of the specified action
    *kyvati (to knock, to hew)*kyvъkъ (nod)
    *telťì (to shove, to pound)*tьlčьkъ (push, impulse)
    *mazati (to anoint, to spread oil/paint)*mazъkъ (dab, smear)
    *glъtati (to swallow)*glъtъkъ (gulp)
  7. Deverbal, forms tool or agent nouns for the specified action: -er
    Synonyms: *-ьcь, *-slo
    *strěľati (to knock, to hew)*strělъkъ (shooter)
    *skrebti (to scrape)*skrebъkъ (scraper)
    *gǫděti (to buzz, to honk)*gǫdъkъ (horn, buzzer)
    *pьlzti (to craw) → dial. *pьlžьkъ (slug)
  8. From propositions, forms an instance of the specified action
    *perdъ (in front)*perdъkъ (ancestor)
    *po +‎ *tomь (later on, over there)*potomъkъ (descendant)

Etymology 2[edit]

Adjectival suffix with analogical origin as the nominal suffix. Related to Proto-Germanic *-ugaz (when appended to u-stems) and Proto-Germanic *-agaz (to o-stems).

In rare case, both the original u-stem form (reanalyzed as an o-stem) and the extended *-ъkъ are attested: e.g. Old Church Slavonic крѣпъ (krěpŭ) : крѣпъкъ (krěpŭkŭ).



  1. From nouns or adverbs, forms adjectives with pertaining meaning: -y
    *kortъ (piece, bit)*kortъkъ (short)
    *nizъ (down, below)*nizъkъ (nether, low)
    *slizъ (slime)*slizъkъ (slippery)
    *goře(stь) (sorrow, woe, tribulation)*gorьkъ (bitter)
    *tęžе(stь) (weight)*tęžьkъ (heavy)
  2. Deverbial from the past participle, forms adjectives which approximate the meaning of the participle: -ly (rare)
    *plyti (to float)*plytъ (sunk)*plytъkъ (shallow)
    *pry(g)ti (to spring, to jump)*prytъ (sprung)*prytъkъ (agile, nimble)
    *viti (to curve, to wind)*vitъ (curved)*vitъkъ (curvу, twisty)
    *biti (to beat, to fight)*bitъ (beaten)*bitъkъ (feisty, military)
  3. (Extension) From former u-stem adjective (some of them surviving as re-analyzed o-stems), forms their doublets
    *gladъ*gladъkъ (smooth, plain)
    *dьrzъ*dьrzъkъ (daring, bald)
    *krěpъ*krěpъkъ (solid, firm)
    *krěxъ*krěxъkъ (soft, mild)
    **lьgъ*lьgъkъ (light)
    **mělъ*mělъkъ (small, finely ground)
    **tьnъ*tьnъkъ (thin)
Alternative forms[edit]
  • *-ьkъ (when attached to yu-stems or spread from the ancient comparative in *-jьš-)

Derived terms[edit]


  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: -ъкъ (-ŭkŭ)
  • South Slavic:
  • West Slavic:
    • Czech: -ek
    • Kashubian: -k
    • Polish: -ek
    • Slovak: -ok
    • Slovincian: -k
    • Sorbian:
      • Upper Sorbian: -k
      • Lower Sorbian: -k


  • Šekli, Matej (2012), “Besedotvorni pomeni samostalniških izpeljank v praslovanščini”, in Philological Studies[1] (in Slovene), volume 10, issue 1, Skopje, Perm, Ljubljana, Zagreb, pages 115–32
  • Halla-aho, Jussi (2006) Problems of Proto-Slavic Historical Nominal Morphology: On the Basis of Old Church Slavic (Slavica Helsingiensia; 26)‎[2], Helsinki: University of Helsinki, page 100