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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Etymology 1[edit]

Nominal suffix. From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-kas, from Proto-Indo-European *-kos.


*-kъ m

  1. Deverbal, forms token nouns (usually with o-grade)
    *porkъ (sling)*perti (to propel, to strike)
    *borkъ (marriage)*bьrati (to pick, to collect)
    *dorkъ (scuffle; thornbush)*dьrati (to tear)
    *znakъ (sign, symbol)*znati (to know)
    *zorkъ (phantasm)*zьrěti (to watch, to observe)
    *mǫka (grief, hardship, torture) ← archaic *mьňati (to belittle, to grind) (compare the l-extension *mělь (finely ground))
  2. From expressive or onomatopoetic interjections or verbs, forms onomatopoetic action nouns referring to the respective interjection or verb
    Synonyms: *-skъ, *-pъ
    *zvǫkъ (sound)*zvьněti (to ring)
    *pukъ (pop)*puxati (to blow, to puff)
    *vykъ (shout)*vyti (to howl)*vъjь! (woe, wail)
    *krikъ (cry, squeak)*kričati (to squeak)*kri-kri!
    *čikъ-čirikъ (chirp-chirp)*čikъ-čirikati (to tweet)*či-či!
  3. From verbs in a-theme declension or adjectives, forming agent nouns. Equivalent to *-akъ (see there for examples)
  4. From archaic ū-stem nouns, forms instruments or representations of the referred concept
    Synonym: *-yka
    *kъlykъ (fang, tusk)*kluti (to peck)*kolti (to wreck, to slaugher, to stab)
    *ęzykъ (tongue, language)Proto-Balto-Slavic *inźūˀ
  5. (Extension) From archaic i-stem nouns or adjectives. Equivalent to *-ьcь (see there for examples)
  6. (Extension) From archaic ŭ-stem nouns. Equivalent to *-ъkъ (see there for examples)
  7. (Extension) From masculine men-stem nouns. Neural mn̥-stems, such as *plemę or *vermę, were usually not extended
    *ęčьmykъ (barley)*ęčьmy (barley)
    *kamykъ (stone)*kamy (stone, rock)
    *kremykъ (flint)*kremy (flint)
    *polmykъ (flame)*polmy (flame)
    *remykъ (strap)*remy (strap, belt)
  8. Extension of en-stem
    *koręcь (snag, trunk)*korękъ*korę-
    *měsęcь (moon, month)*měsękъ*měsę-
    *zajęcь (rabbit)*zajękъ*zaję-
See also[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Adjectival suffix from Proto-Indo-European *-kos, usually attached to former u-stem or i-stem adjectives. Akin to Proto-Germanic *-ugaz, Proto-Germanic *-īgaz and Latin -ucus, Latin -īcus.



  1. From basic prepositions
    *perkъ (direct, across)*per (fore, across)
    *opakъ (reverse)*po (at, by, afterwards)
    *pakъ (again, then) (only as an adverb)*pa- (later)
  2. (Extension) From former ŭ-stem adjectives, equivalent to *-ъkъ
  3. (Extension) From former i-stem adjectives, equivalent to *-ikъ
    *velikъ (glorious)*velьjь (great)
    *mьnikъ (miniature)*mьňьjь (smaller)
See also[edit]


Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Denotational suffix from Proto-Balto-Slavic *-kas, itself from Proto-Indo-European *-kos or *-ḱos.



  1. From basic demostratives or particles, forms determiners for manner or amount. The neutral or feminine forms of these determiners could act as adverbs
    *takъ (so that)*tъ (that one)
    *jakъ (such one)*jь (this one, previously mentioned)
    *sicь (such that)*sь (this one here)
    *kakъ (how)*kъjь (who)
    *čakъ (even so)*čьjь (which)
    *vьśаkъ (anyway)*vьśь (all)
    *jьnаkъ (otherwise)*jьnъ (other, different)
    *tukъ (here)*tu (here, demonstrative for location)
    *dekъ (where, so that)*de (locative particle)
    *nekъ (let/may it be so)*ne (negative particle)