Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/-ikъ

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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Slavic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Cognate with Latvian -ieks (< -eikas). The *-i in *-ikъ thus reflects a diphthong *ey, which explains the lack of the third palatalization. Lithuanian -ykas reflects earlier -inīkas, and is not a cognate. Probably not related to Sanskrit -ईक (-īká) and Latin -īco.

Suffix[edit]

*-ikъ m

  1. Denominal, forming diminutives.
    *nožь (knife)*nožikъ (a small knife)
    *větrъ (wind)*větrikъ (breeze)
    *listъ (leaf)*listikъ (a small leaf)
    *bobъ (broad bean)*bobikъ ((a small) broad bean)
  2. Deadjectival, denoting a carrier of a property.
    *zoltъ (golden)*zoltikъ (something golden)
    *porzdьnъ (empty)*porzdьnikъ (feast, holiday, festival)
    *moldъ (young)*moldikъ (something or somebody young)
    *malъ (small)*malikъ (something or somebody small)

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

The diminutive function is productive in North Slavic. In South Slavic languages diminutive formations only exist in relics, mostly in Slovene.

Derived terms[edit]

  • *-nikъ (appended to the past participle of verbs in *-nъ)
  • *-ьnikъ (with *-ьn- element abstracted away from denominal derivations on *-ьnъ)

Related terms[edit]

  • *-ica (feminine counterpart)

Descendants[edit]

  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: -икъ (-ikŭ)
  • South Slavic:
  • West Slavic:

References[edit]

  • Šekli, Matej (2012), “Besedotvorni pomeni samostalniških izpeljank v praslovanščini”, in Philological Studies[1] (in Slovene), volume 10, issue 1, Skopje, Perm, Ljubljana, Zagreb, pages 115–32
  • Sławski, Franciszek, editor (1974) Słownik prasłowiański (in Polish), volume I, Wrocław: Polska Akademia Nauk, page 90f
  • J. Halla-aho (2006): "Nouns in */-k-o-/ " in Problems of Proto-Slavic Historical Nominal Morphology, University of Helsenki, p. 70