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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Cognate with Latvian -ieks (< -eikas). The *-i in *-ikъ thus reflects a diphthong *ey, which explains the lack of the third palatalization. Lithuanian -ykas reflects earlier -inīkas, and is not a cognate. Probably not related to Sanskrit -ईक (-īká) and Latin -icō.


*-ikъ m

  1. Denominal, forming diminutives.
    *nožь (knife)*nožikъ (a small knife)
    *větrъ (wind)*větrikъ (breeze)
    *listъ (leaf)*listikъ (a small leaf)
    *bobъ (broad bean)*bobikъ ((a small) broad bean)
  2. Deadjectival, denoting a carrier of a property.
    *zoltъ (golden)*zoltikъ (something golden)
    *porzdьnъ (empty)*porzdьnikъ (feast, holiday, festival)
    *moldъ (young)*moldikъ (something or somebody young)
    *malъ (small)*malikъ (something or somebody small)


Usage notes[edit]

The diminutive function is productive in North Slavic. In South Slavic languages diminutive formations only exist in relics, mostly in Slovene.

Derived terms[edit]

  • *-nikъ (appended to the past participle of verbs in *-nъ)
  • *-ьnikъ (with *-ьn- element abstracted away from denominal derivations on *-ьnъ)

Related terms[edit]

  • *-ica (feminine counterpart)


  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: -икъ (-ikŭ)
  • South Slavic:
  • West Slavic:


  • Šekli, Matej (2012), “Besedotvorni pomeni samostalniških izpeljank v praslovanščini”, in Philological Studies[1] (in Slovene), volume 10, issue 1, Skopje, Perm, Ljubljana, Zagreb, pages 115–32
  • Sławski, Franciszek, editor (1974), “*-ikъ”, in Słownik prasłowiański [Proto-Slavic Dictionary] (in Polish), volume 1 (a – bьzděti), Wrocław: National Ossoliński Institute, page 90
  • J. Halla-aho (2006): "Nouns in */-k-o-/ " in Problems of Proto-Slavic Historical Nominal Morphology, University of Helsenki, p. 70