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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative forms[edit]


Underlyingly reflecting Proto-Balto-Slavic *-kias, *-kis, from Proto-Indo-European *-k-yos, formed by agglutination of *-yos (Proto Slavic *-jь, from Proto-Balto-SLavic *-ias) onto the element *-kъ.

Cognate with Lithuanian -kis and Latvian -ķis.


*-čь m

  1. Deverbal, forming agent nouns.
    Synonyms: *-teľь, *-ьcь, *-ьnikъ
    *kopati (to dig)*kopačь (digger)
    *kovati (to forge)*kovačь (smith, blacksmith)
    *běgati (to run)*běgačь (runner)
    *jьgrati (to play)*jьgračь (player)
    *vьrati (to lie)*vьračь (sorcerer, soothsayer, charlatan)
    *pogoniti (to pursue, observe)*pogoničь (drover)
    *roditi (to give birth)*rodičь (father)
    *voditi (to lead)*vodičь (leader)
    *badati\*bodati or *bodti > *bosti (to sting, stab, butt)*bodačь (that which stings, stabs, butts)
  2. Deverbal, forming nomina instrumenti.
    Synonym: *-dlo
    *biti (to beat)*bičь (whip)
    *briti (to shave, cut hair/beard)*bričь (cutting tool, razor)


See also[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Usage notes[edit]


  • After the loss of word-final jer, daughter languages have reinterpreted the thematic ending of the verb -i- and -a- as a part of the suffix itself.
  • In most of the daughters *-ačь merged with the reflex of *-čь which was preceded by the thematic vowel -a.


  • Šekli, Matej (2012), “Besedotvorni pomeni samostalniških izpeljank v praslovanščini”, in Philological Studies[1] (in Slovene), volume 10, issue 1, Skopje, Perm, Ljubljana, Zagreb, pages 115–32
  • Sławski, Franciszek, editor (1974) Słownik prasłowiański (in Polish), volume I, Wrocław: Polska Akademia Nauk, page 102f
  • Halla-aho, Jussi (2006) Problems of Proto-Slavic Historical Nominal Morphology: On the Basis of Old Church Slavic (Slavica Helsingiensia; 26)‎[2], Helsinki: University of Helsinki, page 68