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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From earlier *-ьkъ, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *-ikas, from Proto-Indo-European *-ikos.

Cognate with Lithuanian -ikas, -ikis in siuvikas, siuvikis (< siūti, siùvo), piovikas (reaper) (< piáuti, pióvė).[1]

Cognate with Lithuanian -ingas, Latvian -īgs, Proto-Germanic *-igaz, Latin -icus, Ancient Greek -ικός (-ikós). Typically, these suffixes fulfill adjectival function (similar to Proto-Slavic *-ьnъ), however, sometimes their derivatives could also act as nominals like in Slavic.

Comparison with other languages points to the antiquity of denominal formations, which are most likely substantivized adjectives.[2]


*-ьcь m

  1. (added to nouns) Forms diminutives
    *rogъ (horn) + ‎*-ьcь → ‎*rožьcь (a small horn)
    *obolkъ (cloud) + ‎*-ьcь → ‎*obolčьcь (a small cloud)
    *gordъ (city, town) + ‎*-ьcь → ‎*gordьcь (a small town)
  2. (added to adjectives) nominalizer, person
    *starъ (old) + ‎*-ьcь → ‎*starьcь (an old man)
    *mǫdrъ (wise) + ‎*-ьcь → ‎*mǫdrьcь (a wise man)
    *bordatъ (bearded) + ‎*-ьcь → ‎*bordatьcь (a bearded man)
  3. (added to verbs) Forms agent nouns
    Synonyms: *-teľь, *-čь, *-ьnikъ
    *šiti (to sew) + ‎*-ьcь → ‎*šьvьcь (sewer, seamster)
    *plęsati (to dance) + ‎*-ьcь → ‎*plęsьcь (dancer)
    *loviti (to hunt) + ‎*-ьcь → ‎*lovьcь (hunter)
    *gǫsti (to play a string instrument) + ‎*-ьcь → ‎*gǫdьcь (musician)


See also[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: -ьць (-ĭcĭ)
  • South Slavic:
    • Old Church Slavonic:
      Cyrillic: -ьць (-ĭcĭ)
      Glagolitic: -ⱐⱌⱐ (-ĭcĭ)
    • Bulgarian: -ец (-ec)
    • Macedonian: -ец (-ec)
    • Serbo-Croatian:
      Cyrillic script: -ац, -ец (Kajkavian)
      Latin script: -ac, -ec (Kajkavian)
    • Slovene: -ec
  • West Slavic:

Further reading[edit]

  • Šekli, Matej (2012), “Besedotvorni pomeni samostalniških izpeljank v praslovanščini”, in Philological Studies[1] (in Slovene), volume 10, issue 1, Skopje, Perm, Ljubljana, Zagreb, pages 115–32
  • Halla-aho, Jussi (2006) Problems of Proto-Slavic Historical Nominal Morphology: On the Basis of Old Church Slavic (Slavica Helsingiensia; 26), Helsinki: University of Helsinki, page 70f


  1. ^ Otrębski, Jan (1964), “Славяно-балтийское языковое единство. II. Морфологические явления”, in Вопросы языкознания, issue 6, Москва: Издательство Академии наук СССР, page 28
  2. ^ Brugmann, Karl. (1916) Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen: II. Lehre von den Wortformen und ihrem Gebrauch, 1. Allgemeines, Zusammensetzung (Komposita), Nominalstämme. Strassburg., pp. 487–491